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Gene name sigD
Synonyms flaB
Essential no
Product RNA polymerase sigma factor SigD
Function regulation of flagella, motility, chemotaxis and autolysis
Gene expression levels in SubtiExpress: sigD
Interactions involving this protein in SubtInteract: SigD
MW, pI 29 kDa, 5.167
Gene length, protein length 762 bp, 254 aa
Immediate neighbours cheD, swrB
Sequences Protein DNA DNA_with_flanks
Genetic context
SigD context.gif
This image was kindly provided by SubtiList
Expression at a glance   PubMed
SigD expression.png

Categories containing this gene/protein

transcription, sigma factors and their control, motility and chemotaxis

This gene is a member of the following regulons

CodY regulon, DegU regulon, SigD regulon, Spo0A regulon

The SigD regulon

The gene

Basic information

  • Locus tag: BSU16470

Phenotypes of a mutant

  • Inactivation of alsR, sigD and sigW increases competitive fitness of Bacillus subtilis under non-sporulating conditions PubMed
  • mucoid phenotype due to the overproduction of poly-gamma-glutamate (because of the loss of motA-motB expression) PubMed

Database entries

  • DBTBS entry: [1]
  • SubtiList entry: [2]

Additional information

The protein

Basic information/ Evolution

  • Catalyzed reaction/ biological activity:
  • Protein family: sigma-70 factor family (according to Swiss-Prot)
  • Paralogous protein(s):

Extended information on the protein

  • Kinetic information:
  • Domains:
  • Modification:
  • Cofactor(s):
  • Effectors of protein activity: interaction with FlgM inhibits SigD activity PubMed

Database entries

  • Structure:
  • KEGG entry: [3]
  • E.C. number:

Additional information

Expression and regulation

  • Additional information:

Biological materials

  • Mutant:
  • Expression vector:
  • lacZ fusion:
  • GFP fusion:
  • two-hybrid system: B. pertussis adenylate cyclase-based bacterial two hybrid system (BACTH), available in Stülke lab
  • FLAG-tag construct: GP948 (ermC, based on pGP1087), available in the Stülke lab
  • Antibody:

Labs working on this gene/protein

Your additional remarks



Sampriti Mukherjee, Daniel B Kearns
The structure and regulation of flagella in Bacillus subtilis.
Annu. Rev. Genet.: 2014, 48;319-40
[PubMed:25251856] [] [DOI] (I p)

Jan-Willem Veening, Oscar P Kuipers
Gene position within a long transcript as a determinant for stochastic switching in bacteria.
Mol. Microbiol.: 2010, 76(2);269-72
[PubMed:20233302] [] [DOI] (I p)

The SigD regulon

Masakuni Serizawa, Hiroki Yamamoto, Hirotake Yamaguchi, Yasutaro Fujita, Kazuo Kobayashi, Naotake Ogasawara, Junichi Sekiguchi
Systematic analysis of SigD-regulated genes in Bacillus subtilis by DNA microarray and Northern blotting analyses.
Gene: 2004, 329;125-36
[PubMed:15033535] [] [DOI] (P p)

L M Márquez, J D Helmann, E Ferrari, H M Parker, G W Ordal, M J Chamberlin
Studies of sigma D-dependent functions in Bacillus subtilis.
J. Bacteriol.: 1990, 172(6);3435-43
[PubMed:2111808] [] [DOI] (P p)

Original publications

Bo Liu, Gintaras Deikus, Anna Bree, Sylvain Durand, Daniel B Kearns, David H Bechhofer
Global analysis of mRNA decay intermediates in Bacillus subtilis wild-type and polynucleotide phosphorylase-deletion strains.
Mol. Microbiol.: 2014, 94(1);41-55
[PubMed:25099370] [] [DOI] (I p)

Serena Mordini, Cecilia Osera, Simone Marini, Francesco Scavone, Riccardo Bellazzi, Alessandro Galizzi, Cinzia Calvio
The role of SwrA, DegU and P(D3) in fla/che expression in B. subtilis.
PLoS ONE: 2013, 8(12);e85065
[PubMed:24386445] [] [DOI] (I e)

Jia Mun Chan, Sarah B Guttenplan, Daniel B Kearns
Defects in the flagellar motor increase synthesis of poly-γ-glutamate in Bacillus subtilis.
J. Bacteriol.: 2014, 196(4);740-53
[PubMed:24296669] [] [DOI] (I p)

Yun Luo, John D Helmann
A σD-dependent antisense transcript modulates expression of the cyclic-di-AMP hydrolase GdpP in Bacillus subtilis.
Microbiology (Reading): 2012, 158(Pt 11);2732-2741
[PubMed:22956758] [] [DOI] (I p)

Wayne L Nicholson
Increased competitive fitness of Bacillus subtilis under nonsporulating conditions via inactivation of pleiotropic regulators AlsR, SigD, and SigW.
Appl. Environ. Microbiol.: 2012, 78(9);3500-3
[PubMed:22344650] [] [DOI] (I p)

Loralyn M Cozy, Andrew M Phillips, Rebecca A Calvo, Ashley R Bate, Yi-Huang Hsueh, Richard Bonneau, Patrick Eichenberger, Daniel B Kearns
SlrA/SinR/SlrR inhibits motility gene expression upstream of a hypersensitive and hysteretic switch at the level of σ(D) in Bacillus subtilis.
Mol. Microbiol.: 2012, 83(6);1210-28
[PubMed:22329926] [] [DOI] (I p)

Christine Diethmaier, Nico Pietack, Katrin Gunka, Christoph Wrede, Martin Lehnik-Habrink, Christina Herzberg, Sebastian Hübner, Jörg Stülke
A novel factor controlling bistability in Bacillus subtilis: the YmdB protein affects flagellin expression and biofilm formation.
J. Bacteriol.: 2011, 193(21);5997-6007
[PubMed:21856853] [] [DOI] (I p)

Elif Sevim, Ahmed Gaballa, A Osman Beldüz, John D Helmann
DNA-binding properties of the Bacillus subtilis and Aeribacillus pallidus AC6 σ(D) proteins.
J. Bacteriol.: 2011, 193(2);575-9
[PubMed:21097624] [] [DOI] (I p)

Loralyn M Cozy, Daniel B Kearns
Gene position in a long operon governs motility development in Bacillus subtilis.
Mol. Microbiol.: 2010, 76(2);273-85
[PubMed:20233303] [] [DOI] (I p)

Letal I Salzberg, John D Helmann
Phenotypic and transcriptomic characterization of Bacillus subtilis mutants with grossly altered membrane composition.
J. Bacteriol.: 2008, 190(23);7797-807
[PubMed:18820022] [] [DOI] (I p)

Kazuo Kobayashi
Gradual activation of the response regulator DegU controls serial expression of genes for flagellum formation and biofilm formation in Bacillus subtilis.
Mol. Microbiol.: 2007, 66(2);395-409
[PubMed:17850253] [] [DOI] (P p)

Ana R Perez, Angelica Abanes-De Mello, Kit Pogliano
Suppression of engulfment defects in bacillus subtilis by elevated expression of the motility regulon.
J. Bacteriol.: 2006, 188(3);1159-64
[PubMed:16428420] [] [DOI] (P p)

Daniel B Kearns, Richard Losick
Cell population heterogeneity during growth of Bacillus subtilis.
Genes Dev.: 2005, 19(24);3083-94
[PubMed:16357223] [] [DOI] (P p)

H Werhane, P Lopez, M Mendel, M Zimmer, G W Ordal, L M Márquez-Magaña
The last gene of the fla/che operon in Bacillus subtilis, ylxL, is required for maximal sigmaD function.
J. Bacteriol.: 2004, 186(12);4025-9
[PubMed:15175317] [] [DOI] (P p)

Virginie Molle, Masaya Fujita, Shane T Jensen, Patrick Eichenberger, José E González-Pastor, Jun S Liu, Richard Losick
The Spo0A regulon of Bacillus subtilis.
Mol. Microbiol.: 2003, 50(5);1683-701
[PubMed:14651647] [] [DOI] (P p)

Haike Antelmann, Hiroki Yamamoto, Junichi Sekiguchi, Michael Hecker
Stabilization of cell wall proteins in Bacillus subtilis: a proteomic approach.
Proteomics: 2002, 2(5);591-602
[PubMed:11987133] [] [DOI] (P p)

D B Mirel, W F Estacio, M Mathieu, E Olmsted, J Ramirez, L M Márquez-Magaña
Environmental regulation of Bacillus subtilis sigma(D)-dependent gene expression.
J. Bacteriol.: 2000, 182(11);3055-62
[PubMed:10809682] [] [DOI] (P p)

M G Bertero, B Gonzales, C Tarricone, F Ceciliani, A Galizzi
Overproduction and characterization of the Bacillus subtilis anti-sigma factor FlgM.
J. Biol. Chem.: 1999, 274(17);12103-7
[PubMed:10207036] [] [DOI] (P p)

W Estacio, S S Anna-Arriola, M Adedipe, L M Márquez-Magaña
Dual promoters are responsible for transcription initiation of the fla/che operon in Bacillus subtilis.
J. Bacteriol.: 1998, 180(14);3548-55
[PubMed:9657996] [] [DOI] (P p)

T Caramori, A Galizzi
The UP element of the promoter for the flagellin gene, hag, stimulates transcription from both SigD- and SigA-dependent promoters in Bacillus subtilis.
Mol. Gen. Genet.: 1998, 258(4);385-8
[PubMed:9648743] [] [DOI] (P p)

R Allmansberger
Temporal regulation of sigD from Bacillus subtilis depends on a minor promoter in front of the gene.
J. Bacteriol.: 1997, 179(20);6531-5
[PubMed:9335309] [] [DOI] (P p)

K Fredrick, J D Helmann
RNA polymerase sigma factor determines start-site selection but is not required for upstream promoter element activation on heteroduplex (bubble) templates.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.: 1997, 94(10);4982-7
[PubMed:9144176] [] [DOI] (P p)

Y F Chen, J D Helmann
DNA-melting at the Bacillus subtilis flagellin promoter nucleates near -10 and expands unidirectionally.
J. Mol. Biol.: 1997, 267(1);47-59
[PubMed:9096206] [] [DOI] (P p)

K Fredrick, J D Helmann
FlgM is a primary regulator of sigmaD activity, and its absence restores motility to a sinR mutant.
J. Bacteriol.: 1996, 178(23);7010-3
[PubMed:8955328] [] [DOI] (P p)

M H Rashid, J Sekiguchi
flaD (sinR) mutations affect SigD-dependent functions at multiple points in Bacillus subtilis.
J. Bacteriol.: 1996, 178(22);6640-3
[PubMed:8932324] [] [DOI] (P p)

Y F Chen, J D Helmann
The Bacillus subtilis flagellar regulatory protein sigma D: overproduction, domain analysis and DNA-binding properties.
J. Mol. Biol.: 1995, 249(4);743-53
[PubMed:7602586] [] [DOI] (P p)

K Fredrick, T Caramori, Y F Chen, A Galizzi, J D Helmann
Promoter architecture in the flagellar regulon of Bacillus subtilis: high-level expression of flagellin by the sigma D RNA polymerase requires an upstream promoter element.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.: 1995, 92(7);2582-6
[PubMed:7708689] [] [DOI] (P p)

L Chen, J D Helmann
The Bacillus subtilis sigma D-dependent operon encoding the flagellar proteins FliD, FliS, and FliT.
J. Bacteriol.: 1994, 176(11);3093-101
[PubMed:8195064] [] [DOI] (P p)

K L Fredrick, J D Helmann
Dual chemotaxis signaling pathways in Bacillus subtilis: a sigma D-dependent gene encodes a novel protein with both CheW and CheY homologous domains.
J. Bacteriol.: 1994, 176(9);2727-35
[PubMed:8169223] [] [DOI] (P p)

L M Márquez-Magaña, M J Chamberlin
Characterization of the sigD transcription unit of Bacillus subtilis.
J. Bacteriol.: 1994, 176(8);2427-34
[PubMed:8157612] [] [DOI] (P p)

D B Mirel, M J Chamberlin
The Bacillus subtilis flagellin gene (hag) is transcribed by the sigma 28 form of RNA polymerase.
J. Bacteriol.: 1989, 171(6);3095-101
[PubMed:2498284] [] [DOI] (P p)

J D Helmann, F R Masiarz, M J Chamberlin
Isolation and characterization of the Bacillus subtilis sigma 28 factor.
J. Bacteriol.: 1988, 170(4);1560-7
[PubMed:3127378] [] [DOI] (P p)

J D Helmann, L M Márquez, M J Chamberlin
Cloning, sequencing, and disruption of the Bacillus subtilis sigma 28 gene.
J. Bacteriol.: 1988, 170(4);1568-74
[PubMed:2832368] [] [DOI] (P p)