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  • Description: Sda is a checkpoint protein that is upregulated in response to replication stress PubMed. Sda inhibits the autokinase activity of KinA (and likely KinB as well). This in its turn results in reduced levels of Spo0A~P. Thus, replication stressed cells will not initiate sporulation

    Sda is rapidly turned over by the ClpP/X system because of some uncharged residues at its C-terminus PubMed.

Gene name sda
Essential no
Product developmental checkpoint protein
Function mediates a developmental checkpoint coupling
initiation of sporulation (phosphorylation of Spo0A)
to the function of replication initiation proteins
MW, pI 6 kDa, 5.605
Gene length, protein length 156 bp, 52 aa
Immediate neighbours yloV, sdaAA
Get the DNA and protein sequences
(Barbe et al., 2009)
Genetic context
Sda context.gif
This image was kindly provided by SubtiList

The gene

Basic information

  • Locus tag: BSU25690

Phenotypes of a mutant

  • sporulates at a higher frequency
  • will sporulate in the presence of replication stress

Database entries

  • DBTBS entry: [1]
  • SubtiList entry: [2]

Additional information

The protein

Basic information/ Evolution

  • Catalyzed reaction/ biological activity:
  • Protein family:
  • Paralogous protein(s):

Extended information on the protein

  • Kinetic information:
  • Domains:
  • Modification:
  • Cofactor(s):
  • Effectors of protein activity:
  • Localization:

Database entries

  • Structure: 3D36 (from Geobacillus stearothermophilus, complex with KinB), 1PV0
  • KEGG entry: [3]
  • E.C. number:

Additional information

Expression and regulation

  • Regulation: DnaA
    • repressed when no DNA damage is present (LexA) PubMed
  • Regulatory mechanism: Probably activated by DnaA under replication stress
  • Additional information:

Biological materials

  • Mutant:
  • Expression vector:
  • lacZ fusion:
  • GFP fusion:
  • two-hybrid system:
  • Antibody:

Labs working on this gene/protein

Bill Burkholder

Your additional remarks


David A Jacques, Margaret Streamer, Susan L Rowland, Glenn F King, J Mitchell Guss, Jill Trewhella, David B Langley
Structure of the sporulation histidine kinase inhibitor Sda from Bacillus subtilis and insights into its solution state.
Acta Crystallogr. D Biol. Crystallogr.: 2009, 65(Pt 6);574-81
[PubMed:19465772] [] [DOI] (I p)

Nora Au, Elke Kuester-Schoeck, Veena Mandava, Laura E Bothwell, Susan P Canny, Karen Chachu, Sierra A Colavito, Shakierah N Fuller, Eli S Groban, Laura A Hensley, Theresa C O'Brien, Amish Shah, Jessica T Tierney, Louise L Tomm, Thomas M O'Gara, Alexi I Goranov, Alan D Grossman, Charles M Lovett
Genetic composition of the Bacillus subtilis SOS system.
J. Bacteriol.: 2005, 187(22);7655-66
[PubMed:16267290] [] [DOI] (P p)

Susan L Rowland, William F Burkholder, Katherine A Cunningham, Mark W Maciejewski, Alan D Grossman, Glenn F King
Structure and mechanism of action of Sda, an inhibitor of the histidine kinases that regulate initiation of sporulation in Bacillus subtilis.
Mol. Cell: 2004, 13(5);689-701
[PubMed:15023339] [] [DOI] (P p)

W F Burkholder, I Kurtser, A D Grossman
Replication initiation proteins regulate a developmental checkpoint in Bacillus subtilis.
Cell: 2001, 104(2);269-79
[PubMed:11207367] [] [DOI] (P p)