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  • Description: GTP pyrophosphokinase (stringent response)

Gene name relA
Essential no
Product GTP pyrophosphokinase
Function synthesis and degradation of (p)ppGpp,
triggering the stringent response
Metabolic function and regulation of this protein in SubtiPathways:
Purine salvage, Nucleotides (regulation)
MW, pI 84 kDa, 6.964
Gene length, protein length 2202 bp, 734 aa
Immediate neighbours yrvI, apt
Get the DNA and protein sequences
(Barbe et al., 2009)
Genetic context
RelA context.gif
This image was kindly provided by SubtiList

The gene

Basic information

  • Locus tag: BSU27600

Phenotypes of a mutant

Database entries

  • DBTBS entry: [1]
  • SubtiList entry: [2]

Additional information

The protein

Basic information/ Evolution

  • Catalyzed reaction/ biological activity: ATP + GTP = AMP + guanosine 3'-diphosphate 5'-triphosphate (according to Swiss-Prot)
  • Protein family: relA/spoT family (according to Swiss-Prot)
  • Paralogous protein(s):

Extended information on the protein

  • Kinetic information:
  • Domains:
  • Modification:
  • Cofactor(s):
  • Effectors of protein activity:
  • Interactions:
  • Localization:

Database entries

  • Structure:
  • KEGG entry: [3]

Additional information

Expression and regulation

  • Operon:
  • Regulation:
  • Regulatory mechanism:
  • Additional information:

Biological materials

  • Mutant:
  • Expression vector:
  • lacZ fusion:
  • GFP fusion:
  • two-hybrid system:
  • Antibody:

Labs working on this gene/protein

Mohamed Marahiel, Marburg University, Germany homepage

Your additional remarks


Yousuke Natori, Kazumi Tagami, Kana Murakami, Sawako Yoshida, Osamu Tanigawa, Yoonsuh Moh, Kenta Masuda, Tetsuya Wada, Shota Suzuki, Hideaki Nanamiya, Yuzuru Tozawa, Fujio Kawamura
Transcription activity of individual rrn operons in Bacillus subtilis mutants deficient in (p)ppGpp synthetase genes, relA, yjbM, and ywaC.
J. Bacteriol.: 2009, 191(14);4555-61
[PubMed:19447912] [] [DOI] (I p)

Shuyu Zhang, W G Haldenwang
RelA is a component of the nutritional stress activation pathway of the Bacillus subtilis transcription factor sigma B.
J. Bacteriol.: 2003, 185(19);5714-21
[PubMed:13129942] [] [DOI] (P p)

Takashi Inaoka, Kosaku Takahashi, Mayumi Ohnishi-Kameyama, Mitsuru Yoshida, Kozo Ochi
Guanine nucleotides guanosine 5'-diphosphate 3'-diphosphate and GTP co-operatively regulate the production of an antibiotic bacilysin in Bacillus subtilis.
J. Biol. Chem.: 2003, 278(4);2169-76
[PubMed:12372825] [] [DOI] (P p)

Takashi Inaoka, Kozo Ochi
RelA protein is involved in induction of genetic competence in certain Bacillus subtilis strains by moderating the level of intracellular GTP.
J. Bacteriol.: 2002, 184(14);3923-30
[PubMed:12081964] [] [DOI] (P p)

Christine Eymann, Georg Homuth, Christian Scharf, Michael Hecker
Bacillus subtilis functional genomics: global characterization of the stringent response by proteome and transcriptome analysis.
J. Bacteriol.: 2002, 184(9);2500-20
[PubMed:11948165] [] [DOI] (P p)

S Autret, A Levine, F Vannier, Y Fujita, S J Séror
The replication checkpoint control in Bacillus subtilis: identification of a novel RTP-binding sequence essential for the replication fork arrest after induction of the stringent response.
Mol. Microbiol.: 1999, 31(6);1665-79
[PubMed:10209741] [] [DOI] (P p)

T M Wendrich, M A Marahiel
Cloning and characterization of a relA/spoT homologue from Bacillus subtilis.
Mol. Microbiol.: 1997, 26(1);65-79
[PubMed:9383190] [] [DOI] (P p)