Mfd

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  • Description: transcription-repair coupling factor

Gene name mfd
Synonyms
Essential no
Product transcription-repair coupling factor
Function promotes strand-specific DNA repair by displacing

RNA polymerase stalled at a nucleotide lesion and directing

the (A)BC excinuclease to the RNA damage site

Interactions involving this protein in SubtInteract: Mfd
MW, pI 133 kDa, 5.367
Gene length, protein length 3531 bp, 1177 aa
Immediate neighbours fin, spoVT
Get the DNA and protein sequences
(Barbe et al., 2009)
Genetic context
Mfd context.gif
This image was kindly provided by SubtiList



Categories containing this gene/protein

DNA repair/ recombination, transcription

This gene is a member of the following regulons

The gene

Basic information

  • Locus tag: BSU00550

Phenotypes of a mutant

In an mfd knock-out, the cell's ability to accumulate adaptive mutations in stationary phase is depressed. PubMed

Database entries

  • DBTBS entry: no entry
  • SubtiList entry: [1]

Additional information

The protein

Basic information/ Evolution

  • Catalyzed reaction/ biological activity:
    • promotes strand-specific DNA repair by displacing RNA polymerase stalled at a nucleotide lesion and directing the (A)BC excinuclease to the RNA damage site
    • is required for roadblock transcription repression by transcription factors with binding sites downstream of the promoter (as for CcpA PubMed and CodY PubMed)
  • Protein family:
  • Paralogous protein(s): RecG

Extended information on the protein

  • Kinetic information:
  • Domains:
  • Modification:
  • Cofactor(s):
  • Effectors of protein activity:

Database entries

  • Structure:
    • 2EYQ (Mfd from E. coli) PubMed
    • 3MLQ (RNA polymerase interacting domain of Thermus thermophilus Mfd with the Thermus aquaticus RpoB beta1 domain) PubMed
  • KEGG entry: [2]
  • E.C. number:

Additional information

Expression and regulation

  • Operon:
  • Regulation:
  • Regulatory mechanism:
  • Additional information:

Biological materials

  • Mutant: GP1167 (del ermC), available in Stülke lab
  • Expression vector:
  • lacZ fusion:
  • GFP fusion: GP1510 (spc, based on pGP1870), available in the Stülke lab
  • YFP fusion: GP1511 (spc, based on pGP1871), available in the Stülke lab
  • two-hybrid system:
  • Antibody:
  • Strep-tag construct: GP890 (spc, based on pGP1389), available in the Stülke lab

Labs working on this gene/protein

Your additional remarks

References

Reviews

Philip C Hanawalt, Graciela Spivak
Transcription-coupled DNA repair: two decades of progress and surprises.
Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol.: 2008, 9(12);958-70
[PubMed:19023283] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (I p)

Rodrigo S Galhardo, P J Hastings, Susan M Rosenberg
Mutation as a stress response and the regulation of evolvability.
Crit. Rev. Biochem. Mol. Biol.: 2007, 42(5);399-435
[PubMed:17917874] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (P p)

Alexandra M Deaconescu, Nigel Savery, Seth A Darst
The bacterial transcription repair coupling factor.
Curr. Opin. Struct. Biol.: 2007, 17(1);96-102
[PubMed:17239578] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (P p)

James J Truglio, Deborah L Croteau, Bennett Van Houten, Caroline Kisker
Prokaryotic nucleotide excision repair: the UvrABC system.
Chem. Rev.: 2006, 106(2);233-52
[PubMed:16464004] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (P p)

Sergei Borukhov, Jookyung Lee, Oleg Laptenko
Bacterial transcription elongation factors: new insights into molecular mechanism of action.
Mol. Microbiol.: 2005, 55(5);1315-24
[PubMed:15720542] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (P p)

Jeffrey Roberts, Joo-Seop Park
Mfd, the bacterial transcription repair coupling factor: translocation, repair and termination.
Curr. Opin. Microbiol.: 2004, 7(2);120-5
[PubMed:15063847] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (P p)

E C Friedberg
Relationships between DNA repair and transcription.
Annu. Rev. Biochem.: 1996, 65;15-42
[PubMed:8811173] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (P p)

C P Selby, A Sancar
Mechanisms of transcription-repair coupling and mutation frequency decline.
Microbiol. Rev.: 1994, 58(3);317-29
[PubMed:7968917] [WorldCat.org] (P p)


Original Articles

Additional publications: PubMed

Boris R Belitsky, Abraham L Sonenshein
Roadblock repression of transcription by Bacillus subtilis CodY.
J. Mol. Biol.: 2011, 411(4);729-43
[PubMed:21699902] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (I p)

Christine Pybus, Mario Pedraza-Reyes, Christian A Ross, Holly Martin, Katherine Ona, Ronald E Yasbin, Eduardo Robleto
Transcription-associated mutation in Bacillus subtilis cells under stress.
J. Bacteriol.: 2010, 192(13);3321-8
[PubMed:20435731] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (I p)

Christian Ross, Christine Pybus, Mario Pedraza-Reyes, Huang-Mo Sung, Ronald E Yasbin, Eduardo Robleto
Novel role of mfd: effects on stationary-phase mutagenesis in Bacillus subtilis.
J. Bacteriol.: 2006, 188(21);7512-20
[PubMed:16950921] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (P p)

Alexandra M Deaconescu, Anna L Chambers, Abigail J Smith, Bryce E Nickels, Ann Hochschild, Nigel J Savery, Seth A Darst
Structural basis for bacterial transcription-coupled DNA repair.
Cell: 2006, 124(3);507-20
[PubMed:16469698] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (P p)

J M Zalieckas, L V Wray, A E Ferson, S H Fisher
Transcription-repair coupling factor is involved in carbon catabolite repression of the Bacillus subtilis hut and gnt operons.
Mol. Microbiol.: 1998, 27(5);1031-8
[PubMed:9535092] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (P p)

S Ayora, F Rojo, N Ogasawara, S Nakai, J C Alonso
The Mfd protein of Bacillus subtilis 168 is involved in both transcription-coupled DNA repair and DNA recombination.
J. Mol. Biol.: 1996, 256(2);301-18
[PubMed:8594198] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (P p)

V D Filippov, E E Zagoruiko
Study of MFD in Bacillus subtilis.
Mutat. Res.: 1978, 52(1);49-56
[PubMed:104170] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (P p)