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  • Description: transcription-repair coupling factor

Gene name mfd
Essential no
Product transcription-repair coupling factor
Function promotes strand-specific DNA repair by displacing

RNA polymerase stalled at a nucleotide lesion and directing

the (A)BC excinuclease to the RNA damage site

MW, pI 133 kDa, 5.367
Gene length, protein length 3531 bp, 1177 aa
Immediate neighbours yabK, spoVT
Get the DNA and protein sequences
(Barbe et al., 2009)
Genetic context
Mfd context.gif
This image was kindly provided by SubtiList

The gene

Basic information

  • Locus tag: BSU00550

Phenotypes of a mutant

In an mfd knock-out, the cell's ability to accumulate adaptive mutations in stationary phase is depressed. PubMed

Database entries

  • DBTBS entry: no entry
  • SubtiList entry: [1]

Additional information

The protein

Basic information/ Evolution

  • Catalyzed reaction/ biological activity:
  • Protein family:
  • Paralogous protein(s): RecG

Extended information on the protein

  • Kinetic information:
  • Domains:
  • Modification:
  • Cofactor(s):
  • Effectors of protein activity:
  • Interactions:
  • Localization:

Database entries

  • KEGG entry: [2]
  • E.C. number:

Additional information

Expression and regulation

  • Operon:
  • Regulation:
  • Regulatory mechanism:
  • Additional information:

Biological materials

  • Mutant: GP1167 (ermC), GP1168 (aphA3, ermC, cat), GP1169 (spec, ermC) available in Stülke lab
  • Expression vector:
  • lacZ fusion:
  • GFP fusion:
  • two-hybrid system:
  • Antibody:

Labs working on this gene/protein

Your additional remarks



Rodrigo S Galhardo, P J Hastings, Susan M Rosenberg
Mutation as a stress response and the regulation of evolvability.
Crit Rev Biochem Mol Biol: 2007, 42(5);399-435
[PubMed:17917874] [] [DOI] (P p)

Alexandra M Deaconescu, Nigel Savery, Seth A Darst
The bacterial transcription repair coupling factor.
Curr Opin Struct Biol: 2007, 17(1);96-102
[PubMed:17239578] [] [DOI] (P p)

Sergei Borukhov, Jookyung Lee, Oleg Laptenko
Bacterial transcription elongation factors: new insights into molecular mechanism of action.
Mol Microbiol: 2005, 55(5);1315-24
[PubMed:15720542] [] [DOI] (P p)

Jeffrey Roberts, Joo-Seop Park
Mfd, the bacterial transcription repair coupling factor: translocation, repair and termination.
Curr Opin Microbiol: 2004, 7(2);120-5
[PubMed:15063847] [] [DOI] (P p)

E C Friedberg
Relationships between DNA repair and transcription.
Annu Rev Biochem: 1996, 65;15-42
[PubMed:8811173] [] [DOI] (P p)

C P Selby, A Sancar
Mechanisms of transcription-repair coupling and mutation frequency decline.
Microbiol Rev: 1994, 58(3);317-29
[PubMed:7968917] [] (P p)

Original Articles

Christian Ross, Christine Pybus, Mario Pedraza-Reyes, Huang-Mo Sung, Ronald E Yasbin, Eduardo Robleto
Novel role of mfd: effects on stationary-phase mutagenesis in Bacillus subtilis.
J Bacteriol: 2006, 188(21);7512-20
[PubMed:16950921] [] [DOI] (P p)

Alexandra M Deaconescu, Anna L Chambers, Abigail J Smith, Bryce E Nickels, Ann Hochschild, Nigel J Savery, Seth A Darst
Structural basis for bacterial transcription-coupled DNA repair.
Cell: 2006, 124(3);507-20
[PubMed:16469698] [] [DOI] (P p)

J M Zalieckas, L V Wray, A E Ferson, S H Fisher
Transcription-repair coupling factor is involved in carbon catabolite repression of the Bacillus subtilis hut and gnt operons.
Mol Microbiol: 1998, 27(5);1031-8
[PubMed:9535092] [] [DOI] (P p)

S Ayora, F Rojo, N Ogasawara, S Nakai, J C Alonso
The Mfd protein of Bacillus subtilis 168 is involved in both transcription-coupled DNA repair and DNA recombination.
J Mol Biol: 1996, 256(2);301-18
[PubMed:8594198] [] [DOI] (P p)

V D Filippov, E E Zagoruiko
Study of MFD in Bacillus subtilis.
Mutat Res: 1978, 52(1);49-56
[PubMed:104170] [] [DOI] (P p)