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  • Description: Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, NAD-dependent, glycolytic enzyme

Gene name gapA
Essential Yes (PubMed)
Product glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase
Function catabolic enzyme in glycolysis
MW, pI 35.7 kDa, 5.03
Gene length, protein length 1005 bp, 335 amino acids
Immediate neighbours cggR, pgk
Get the DNA and protein sequences
(Barbe et al., 2009)
Genetic context
GapA context.gif
This image was kindly provided by SubtiList

The gene

Basic information

  • Locus tag: BSU33940

Phenotypes of a mutant

Database entries

  • DBTBS entry: [1]
  • SubtiList entry:[2]

Additional information

The protein

Basic information/ Evolution

  • Catalyzed reaction/ biological activity: D-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate + phosphate + NAD+ = 3-phospho-D-glyceroyl phosphate + NADH (according to Swiss-Prot)
    • This reaction is part of the glycolysis.
  • Protein family: glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase family (according to Swiss-Prot)
  • Paralogous protein(s): GapB

Extended information on the protein

  • Kinetic information: Michaelis-Menten PubMed
  • Domains:
  • Modification:
    • Phosphorylation on (Ser-148 OR Ser-151 OR Thr-153 OR Thr-154) PubMed1, PubMed2
    • Reversible thiol modifications after exposure to toxic quinones PubMed
  • Effectors of protein activity:
  • Localization: cytoplasm (according to Swiss-Prot), Cytoplasm (Homogeneous) PubMed PubMed, loosely membrane associated PubMed

Database entries

  • Structure:
    • 3CMC (from Geobacillus stearothermophilus)
    • 1NQO (from Geobacillus stearothermophilus, mutant with cys 149 replaced by ser, complex with NAD+ und D-Glyceraldehyde-3-Phosphate)
  • KEGG entry: [3]

Additional information

GAP dehydrogenases from different sources (incl. Geobacillus stearothermophilus) were shown to cleave RNA (PubMed). Moreover, mutations in gapA from B. subtilis can suppress mutations in genes involved in DNA replication (PubMed).

Expression and regulation

The primary mRNAs of the operon are highly unstable. The primary mRNA is subject to processing at the very end of the cggR open reading frame. This results in stable mature gapA and gapA-pgk-tpiA-pgm-eno mRNAs. The processing event requires the Rny protein.

  • Sigma factor: SigA
  • Regulation: expression activated by glucose (10 fold) PubMed, CggR represses the operon in the absence of glycolytic sugars PubMed
  • Regulatory mechanism: repression
  • Additional information: GapA is one of the most abundant proteins in the cell. In the presence of glucose, there are about 25,000 GapA molecules per cell (PubMed).

Biological materials

  • Mutant: essential
  • Expression vector:
    • pGP90 (N-terminal Strep-tag, for SPINE, purification from B. subtilis, in pGP380) (available in Stülke lab)
    • pGP704 (N-terminal His-tag, in pWH844) (available in Stülke lab)
  • lacZ fusion: pGP506 (in pAC7), pGP512 (in pAC6) (available in Stülke lab)
  • GFP fusion:
  • two-hybrid system: B. pertussis adenylate cyclase-based bacterial two hybrid system (BACTH), available in Stülke lab
  • Antibody: available in Stülke lab

Labs working on this gene/protein

Stephane Aymerich, Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, INRA Paris-Grignon, France

Jörg Stülke, University of Göttingen, Germany homepage

Your additional remarks


Fabian M Commichau, Fabian M Rothe, Christina Herzberg, Eva Wagner, Daniel Hellwig, Martin Lehnik-Habrink, Elke Hammer, Uwe Völker, Jörg Stülke
Novel activities of glycolytic enzymes in Bacillus subtilis: interactions with essential proteins involved in mRNA processing.
Mol Cell Proteomics: 2009, 8(6);1350-60
[PubMed:19193632] [] [DOI] (I p)

Manuel Liebeke, Dierk-Christoph Pöther, Nguyen van Duy, Dirk Albrecht, Dörte Becher, Falko Hochgräfe, Michael Lalk, Michael Hecker, Haike Antelmann
Depletion of thiol-containing proteins in response to quinones in Bacillus subtilis.
Mol Microbiol: 2008, 69(6);1513-29
[PubMed:18673455] [] [DOI] (I p)

Christine Eymann, Dörte Becher, Jörg Bernhardt, Katrin Gronau, Anja Klutzny, Michael Hecker
Dynamics of protein phosphorylation on Ser/Thr/Tyr in Bacillus subtilis.
Proteomics: 2007, 7(19);3509-26
[PubMed:17726680] [] [DOI] (P p)

Laurent Jannière, Danielle Canceill, Catherine Suski, Sophie Kanga, Bérengère Dalmais, Roxane Lestini, Anne-Françoise Monnier, Jérôme Chapuis, Alexander Bolotin, Marina Titok, Emmanuelle Le Chatelier, S Dusko Ehrlich
Genetic evidence for a link between glycolysis and DNA replication.
PLoS One: 2007, 2(5);e447
[PubMed:17505547] [] [DOI] (I e)

Boris Macek, Ivan Mijakovic, Jesper V Olsen, Florian Gnad, Chanchal Kumar, Peter R Jensen, Matthias Mann
The serine/threonine/tyrosine phosphoproteome of the model bacterium Bacillus subtilis.
Mol Cell Proteomics: 2007, 6(4);697-707
[PubMed:17218307] [] [DOI] (P p)

Frédérique Pompeo, Jennifer Luciano, Anne Galinier
Interaction of GapA with HPr and its homologue, Crh: Novel levels of regulation of a key step of glycolysis in Bacillus subtilis?
J Bacteriol: 2007, 189(3);1154-7
[PubMed:17142398] [] [DOI] (P p)

Helena B Thomaides, Ella J Davison, Lisa Burston, Hazel Johnson, David R Brown, Alison C Hunt, Jeffery Errington, Lloyd Czaplewski
Essential bacterial functions encoded by gene pairs.
J Bacteriol: 2007, 189(2);591-602
[PubMed:17114254] [] [DOI] (P p)

Jean-Christophe Meile, Ling Juan Wu, S Dusko Ehrlich, Jeff Errington, Philippe Noirot
Systematic localisation of proteins fused to the green fluorescent protein in Bacillus subtilis: identification of new proteins at the DNA replication factory.
Proteomics: 2006, 6(7);2135-46
[PubMed:16479537] [] [DOI] (P p)

Hans-Matti Blencke, Georg Homuth, Holger Ludwig, Ulrike Mäder, Michael Hecker, Jörg Stülke
Transcriptional profiling of gene expression in response to glucose in Bacillus subtilis: regulation of the central metabolic pathways.
Metab Eng: 2003, 5(2);133-49
[PubMed:12850135] [] [DOI] (P p)

Christoph Meinken, Hans-Matti Blencke, Holger Ludwig, Jörg Stülke
Expression of the glycolytic gapA operon in Bacillus subtilis: differential syntheses of proteins encoded by the operon.
Microbiology (Reading): 2003, 149(Pt 3);751-761
[PubMed:12634343] [] [DOI] (P p)

Thierry Doan, Stéphane Aymerich
Regulation of the central glycolytic genes in Bacillus subtilis: binding of the repressor CggR to its single DNA target sequence is modulated by fructose-1,6-bisphosphate.
Mol Microbiol: 2003, 47(6);1709-21
[PubMed:12622823] [] [DOI] (P p)

Elena Evguenieva-Hackenberg, Emile Schiltz, Gabriele Klug
Dehydrogenases from all three domains of life cleave RNA.
J Biol Chem: 2002, 277(48);46145-50
[PubMed:12359717] [] [DOI] (P p)

Holger Ludwig, Nicole Rebhan, Hans-Matti Blencke, Matthias Merzbacher, Jörg Stülke
Control of the glycolytic gapA operon by the catabolite control protein A in Bacillus subtilis: a novel mechanism of CcpA-mediated regulation.
Mol Microbiol: 2002, 45(2);543-53
[PubMed:12123463] [] [DOI] (P p)

H Ludwig, G Homuth, M Schmalisch, F M Dyka, M Hecker, J Stülke
Transcription of glycolytic genes and operons in Bacillus subtilis: evidence for the presence of multiple levels of control of the gapA operon.
Mol Microbiol: 2001, 41(2);409-22
[PubMed:11489127] [] [DOI] (P p)

S Fillinger, S Boschi-Muller, S Azza, E Dervyn, G Branlant, S Aymerich
Two glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenases with opposite physiological roles in a nonphotosynthetic bacterium.
J Biol Chem: 2000, 275(19);14031-7
[PubMed:10799476] [] [DOI] (P p)

S Tobisch, D Zühlke, J Bernhardt, J Stülke, M Hecker
Role of CcpA in regulation of the central pathways of carbon catabolism in Bacillus subtilis.
J Bacteriol: 1999, 181(22);6996-7004
[PubMed:10559165] [] [DOI] (P p)