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  • Description: DNA uptake, major component of the pseudopilus

Gene name comGC
Essential no
Product major pseudopilin
Function genetic competence
Gene expression levels in SubtiExpress: comGC
Interactions involving this protein in SubtInteract: ComGC
Metabolic function and regulation of this protein in SubtiPathways:
MW, pI 10 kDa, 6.325
Gene length, protein length 294 bp, 98 aa
Immediate neighbours comGD, comGB
Sequences Protein DNA DNA_with_flanks
Genetic context
ComGC context.gif
This image was kindly provided by SubtiList
Expression at a glance   PubMed
ComGC expression.png

Categories containing this gene/protein

genetic competence, membrane proteins

This gene is a member of the following regulons

ComK regulon

The gene

Basic information

  • Locus tag: BSU24710

Phenotypes of a mutant

  • knockout has complete loss of transformation competence

Database entries

  • DBTBS entry: [1]
  • SubtiList entry: [2]

Additional information

The protein

Basic information/ Evolution

  • Catalyzed reaction/ biological activity:
  • Protein family: comGC family (according to Swiss-Prot)
  • Paralogous protein(s):

Extended information on the protein

  • Kinetic information:
  • Domains:
  • Modification:
  • Cofactor(s):
  • Effectors of protein activity:
  • Localization:
    • cell surface PubMed
    • localizes to the cell membrane and the cytoplasm PubMed
    • localizes to one single cell pole in the majority of the cells PubMed

= Database entries

  • Structure:
  • KEGG entry: [3]
  • E.C. number:

Additional information

Expression and regulation

  • Regulation:
    • repressed by casamino acids PubMed
  • Regulatory mechanism:
  • Additional information:

Biological materials

  • Mutant:
  • Expression vector:
  • lacZ fusion:
  • GFP fusion:
  • two-hybrid system:
  • Antibody:

Labs working on this gene/protein

Your additional remarks



Inês Chen, David Dubnau
DNA uptake during bacterial transformation.
Nat. Rev. Microbiol.: 2004, 2(3);241-9
[PubMed:15083159] [] [DOI] (P p)

Original publications

Miriam Kaufenstein, Martin van der Laan, Peter L Graumann
The three-layered DNA uptake machinery at the cell pole in competent Bacillus subtilis cells is a stable complex.
J. Bacteriol.: 2011, 193(7);1633-42
[PubMed:21278288] [] [DOI] (I p)

Inês Chen, Roberta Provvedi, David Dubnau
A macromolecular complex formed by a pilin-like protein in competent Bacillus subtilis.
J. Biol. Chem.: 2006, 281(31);21720-7
[PubMed:16751195] [] [DOI] (P p)

Ulrike Mäder, Georg Homuth, Christian Scharf, Knut Büttner, Rüdiger Bode, Michael Hecker
Transcriptome and proteome analysis of Bacillus subtilis gene expression modulated by amino acid availability.
J. Bacteriol.: 2002, 184(15);4288-95
[PubMed:12107147] [] [DOI] (P p)

Hanne Jarmer, Randy Berka, Steen Knudsen, Hans H Saxild
Transcriptome analysis documents induced competence of Bacillus subtilis during nitrogen limiting conditions.
FEMS Microbiol. Lett.: 2002, 206(2);197-200
[PubMed:11814663] [] [DOI] (P p)

Rob Meima, Caroline Eschevins, Sabine Fillinger, Albert Bolhuis, Leendert W Hamoen, Ronald Dorenbos, Wim J Quax, Jan Maarten van Dijl, Roberta Provvedi, Ines Chen, David Dubnau, Sierd Bron
The bdbDC operon of Bacillus subtilis encodes thiol-disulfide oxidoreductases required for competence development.
J. Biol. Chem.: 2002, 277(9);6994-7001
[PubMed:11744713] [] [DOI] (P p)

Y S Chung, F Breidt, D Dubnau
Cell surface localization and processing of the ComG proteins, required for DNA binding during transformation of Bacillus subtilis.
Mol. Microbiol.: 1998, 29(3);905-13
[PubMed:9723928] [] [DOI] (P p)

Y S Chung, D Dubnau
All seven comG open reading frames are required for DNA binding during transformation of competent Bacillus subtilis.
J. Bacteriol.: 1998, 180(1);41-5
[PubMed:9422590] [] [DOI] (P p)

Y S Chung, D Dubnau
ComC is required for the processing and translocation of comGC, a pilin-like competence protein of Bacillus subtilis.
Mol. Microbiol.: 1995, 15(3);543-51
[PubMed:7783624] [] [DOI] (P p)

D van Sinderen, A ten Berge, B J Hayema, L Hamoen, G Venema
Molecular cloning and sequence of comK, a gene required for genetic competence in Bacillus subtilis.
Mol. Microbiol.: 1994, 11(4);695-703
[PubMed:8196543] [] [DOI] (P p)

R Breitling, D Dubnau
A membrane protein with similarity to N-methylphenylalanine pilins is essential for DNA binding by competent Bacillus subtilis.
J. Bacteriol.: 1990, 172(3);1499-508
[PubMed:1968455] [] [DOI] (P p)

M Albano, R Breitling, D A Dubnau
Nucleotide sequence and genetic organization of the Bacillus subtilis comG operon.
J. Bacteriol.: 1989, 171(10);5386-404
[PubMed:2507524] [] [DOI] (P p)