CitZ

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  • Description: citrate synthase

Gene name citZ
Synonyms citA2
Essential no
Product citrate synthase II
Function TCA cycle
Metabolic function and regulation of this protein in SubtiPathways:
Central C-metabolism
MW, pI 41 kDa, 5.451
Gene length, protein length 1116 bp, 372 aa
Immediate neighbours icd, ytwI
Get the DNA and protein sequences
(Barbe et al., 2009)
Genetic context
CitZ context.gif
This image was kindly provided by SubtiList







The gene

Basic information

  • Locus tag: BSU29140

Phenotypes of a mutant

glutamate auxotrophy and a defect in sporulation PubMed

Database entries

  • DBTBS entry: [1]
  • SubtiList entry: [2]

Additional information

The protein

Basic information/ Evolution

  • Catalyzed reaction/ biological activity: Acetyl-CoA + H2O + oxaloacetate = citrate + CoA (according to Swiss-Prot)
  • Protein family: citrate synthase family (according to Swiss-Prot)

Extended information on the protein

  • Kinetic information: Michaelis-Menten (Random Sequential Reaction Mechanism) PubMed
  • Domains:
  • Modification: phosphorylation on Ser-284 PubMed
  • Cofactor(s):
  • Effectors of protein activity:
    • Inhibited by acetyl-CoA, 2-oxoglutarate and NADH PubMed FEBS Letters
    • Inhibited by citrate and CoA (competitively against acetyl-CoA and non-competitively against oxaloacetate) PubMed
    • Inhibited by ATP competitively in B. subtilis strain 168 and HS 1A17 PubMed PubMed
      • In B. subtilis strain HS 2A2, ATP inhibits a non-competitive fashion PubMed
    • Activated by AMP PubMed
  • Interactions:
  • Localization:

Database entries

  • KEGG entry: [3]

Additional information

Expression and regulation

  • Regulation:
  • Regulatory mechanism:
    • CcpA: transcription repression, CcpC: transcription repression PubMed
    • CcpC: transcription repression (molecular inducer: citrate) PubMed
  • Additional information:
    • The mRNA has a long 5' leader region. This may indicate RNA-based regulation PubMed

Biological materials

  • Mutant: GP678 (erm), available in Stülke lab
  • Expression vector:
    • pGP1120 (N-terminal Strep-tag, for SPINE, purification from B. subtilis, in pGP380) (available in Stülke lab)
  • lacZ fusion:
  • GFP fusion:
  • two-hybrid system: B. pertussis adenylate cyclase-based bacterial two hybrid system (BACTH), available in Stülke lab

Labs working on this gene/protein

Linc Sonenshein, Tufts University, Boston, MA, USA Homepage

Jörg Stülke, University of Göttingen, Germany Homepage

Your additional remarks

References

Reviews

G Wiegand, S J Remington
Citrate synthase: structure, control, and mechanism.
Annu Rev Biophys Biophys Chem: 1986, 15;97-117
[PubMed:3013232] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (P p)

Original publications

Frederik M Meyer, Jan Gerwig, Elke Hammer, Christina Herzberg, Fabian M Commichau, Uwe Völker, Jörg Stülke
Physical interactions between tricarboxylic acid cycle enzymes in Bacillus subtilis: evidence for a metabolon.
Metab. Eng.: 2011, 13(1);18-27
[PubMed:20933603] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (I p)

Irnov Irnov, Cynthia M Sharma, Jörg Vogel, Wade C Winkler
Identification of regulatory RNAs in Bacillus subtilis.
Nucleic Acids Res.: 2010, 38(19);6637-51
[PubMed:20525796] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (I p)

Boris Macek, Ivan Mijakovic, Jesper V Olsen, Florian Gnad, Chanchal Kumar, Peter R Jensen, Matthias Mann
The serine/threonine/tyrosine phosphoproteome of the model bacterium Bacillus subtilis.
Mol. Cell Proteomics: 2007, 6(4);697-707
[PubMed:17218307] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (P p)

Hans-Matti Blencke, Georg Homuth, Holger Ludwig, Ulrike Mäder, Michael Hecker, Jörg Stülke
Transcriptional profiling of gene expression in response to glucose in Bacillus subtilis: regulation of the central metabolic pathways.
Metab. Eng.: 2003, 5(2);133-49
[PubMed:12850135] [WorldCat.org] (P p)

Hyun-Jin Kim, Agnes Roux, Abraham L Sonenshein
Direct and indirect roles of CcpA in regulation of Bacillus subtilis Krebs cycle genes.
Mol. Microbiol.: 2002, 45(1);179-90
[PubMed:12100558] [WorldCat.org] (P p)

C Jourlin-Castelli, N Mani, M M Nakano, A L Sonenshein
CcpC, a novel regulator of the LysR family required for glucose repression of the citB gene in Bacillus subtilis.
J. Mol. Biol.: 2000, 295(4);865-78
[PubMed:10656796] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (P p)

K Matsuno, T Blais, A W Serio, T Conway, T M Henkin, A L Sonenshein
Metabolic imbalance and sporulation in an isocitrate dehydrogenase mutant of Bacillus subtilis.
J. Bacteriol.: 1999, 181(11);3382-91
[PubMed:10348849] [WorldCat.org] (P p)

M M Nakano, P Zuber, A L Sonenshein
Anaerobic regulation of Bacillus subtilis Krebs cycle genes.
J. Bacteriol.: 1998, 180(13);3304-11
[PubMed:9642180] [WorldCat.org] (P p)

S Jin, A L Sonenshein
Characterization of the major citrate synthase of Bacillus subtilis.
J. Bacteriol.: 1996, 178(12);3658-60
[PubMed:8655569] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (P p)

S Jin, A L Sonenshein
Transcriptional regulation of Bacillus subtilis citrate synthase genes.
J. Bacteriol.: 1994, 176(15);4680-90
[PubMed:8045899] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (P p)

S Jin, A L Sonenshein
Identification of two distinct Bacillus subtilis citrate synthase genes.
J. Bacteriol.: 1994, 176(15);4669-79
[PubMed:8045898] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (P p)

D E Johnson, R S Hanson
Bacterial citrate synthases: purification, molecular weight and kinetic mechanism.
Biochim. Biophys. Acta: 1974, 350(2);336-53
[PubMed:4211224] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (P p)

V R Flechtner, R S Hanson
Coarse and fine control of citrate synthase from Bacillus subtilis.
Biochim. Biophys. Acta: 1969, 184(2);252-62
[PubMed:4980242] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (P p)