Two-component systems

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Two component systems are signal transduction systems that consist of a sensor kinase and a response regulator (usually a transcription factor). The kinase autophosphorylates on a His residue (more preciely, one subunit of the dimeric kinase phosphorylates the His residue of the other subunit), and the phosphate group can then be transferred to an aspartate residue in the cognate response regulator. Some response regulators can also autophosphorylate using acety-phosphate as the phosphate donor. More complex signal transduction systems of this class are called phosphorelay. The paradigm for a phosphorelay is the pathway leading to the phosphorylation of Spo0A.

Contents

Two-component systems in B. subtilis (kinase, regulator)

  • Orphan response regulator

The phosphorelay

  • The ultimate target

Related lists

Important original publications

Sebastian Dintner, Anna Staron, Evi Berchtold, Tobias Petri, Thorsten Mascher, Susanne Gebhard
Coevolution of ABC transporters and two-component regulatory systems as resistance modules against antimicrobial peptides in Firmicutes Bacteria.
J. Bacteriol.: 2011, 193(15);3851-62
[PubMed:21665979] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (I p)


Reviews

Christopher P Zschiedrich, Victoria Keidel, Hendrik Szurmant
Molecular Mechanisms of Two-Component Signal Transduction.
J. Mol. Biol.: 2016, 428(19);3752-75
[PubMed:27519796] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (I p)

Anna I Podgornaia, Michael T Laub
Determinants of specificity in two-component signal transduction.
Curr. Opin. Microbiol.: 2013, 16(2);156-62
[PubMed:23352354] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (I p)

Hendrik Szurmant, James A Hoch
Statistical analyses of protein sequence alignments identify structures and mechanisms in signal activation of sensor histidine kinases.
Mol. Microbiol.: 2013, 87(4);707-12
[PubMed:23279101] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (I p)

Emily J Capra, Michael T Laub
Evolution of two-component signal transduction systems.
Annu. Rev. Microbiol.: 2012, 66;325-47
[PubMed:22746333] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (I p)

Benjamin G Bobay, James A Hoch, John Cavanagh
Dynamics and activation in response regulators: the β4-α4 loop.
Biomol Concepts: 2012, 3(2);175-182
[PubMed:24494032] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (I p)

Mohamed Barakat, Philippe Ortet, David E Whitworth
P2CS: a database of prokaryotic two-component systems.
Nucleic Acids Res.: 2011, 39(Database issue);D771-6
[PubMed:21051349] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (I p)

Hendrik Szurmant, James A Hoch
Interaction fidelity in two-component signaling.
Curr. Opin. Microbiol.: 2010, 13(2);190-7
[PubMed:20133181] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (I p)

Kristin Wuichet, Brian J Cantwell, Igor B Zhulin
Evolution and phyletic distribution of two-component signal transduction systems.
Curr. Opin. Microbiol.: 2010, 13(2);219-25
[PubMed:20133179] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (I p)

Richard C Stewart
Protein histidine kinases: assembly of active sites and their regulation in signaling pathways.
Curr. Opin. Microbiol.: 2010, 13(2);133-41
[PubMed:20117042] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (I p)

Rong Gao, Ann M Stock
Molecular strategies for phosphorylation-mediated regulation of response regulator activity.
Curr. Opin. Microbiol.: 2010, 13(2);160-7
[PubMed:20080056] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (I p)

Daelynn R Buelow, Tracy L Raivio
Three (and more) component regulatory systems - auxiliary regulators of bacterial histidine kinases.
Mol. Microbiol.: 2010, 75(3);547-66
[PubMed:19943903] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (I p)

Rong Gao, Ann M Stock
Biological insights from structures of two-component proteins.
Annu. Rev. Microbiol.: 2009, 63;133-54
[PubMed:19575571] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (I p)

Alexander Y Mitrophanov, Eduardo A Groisman
Signal integration in bacterial two-component regulatory systems.
Genes Dev.: 2008, 22(19);2601-11
[PubMed:18832064] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (P p)

Michael T Laub, Mark Goulian
Specificity in two-component signal transduction pathways.
Annu. Rev. Genet.: 2007, 41;121-45
[PubMed:18076326] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (P p)

Hendrik Szurmant, Robert A White, James A Hoch
Sensor complexes regulating two-component signal transduction.
Curr. Opin. Struct. Biol.: 2007, 17(6);706-15
[PubMed:17913492] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (P p)

Rong Gao, Timothy R Mack, Ann M Stock
Bacterial response regulators: versatile regulatory strategies from common domains.
Trends Biochem. Sci.: 2007, 32(5);225-34
[PubMed:17433693] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (P p)

Martijn Bekker, M Joost Teixeira de Mattos, Klaas J Hellingwerf
The role of two-component regulation systems in the physiology of the bacterial cell.
Sci Prog: 2006, 89(Pt 3-4);213-42
[PubMed:17338439] [WorldCat.org] (P p)

Thorsten Mascher, John D Helmann, Gottfried Unden
Stimulus perception in bacterial signal-transducing histidine kinases.
Microbiol. Mol. Biol. Rev.: 2006, 70(4);910-38
[PubMed:17158704] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (P p)

Reviews that appeared before 2005: PubMed

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