Toxins, antitoxins and immunity against toxins

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Classes of toxin/ antitoxin systems

  • Type 1: toxic peptide/ antisense RNA
  • Type 2: toxic protein/ antitoxin protein
  • Type 3: toxic protein/ antagonistic RNA

Genes in this functional category

Type 1 TA systems:

  • as part of the prophage-like element P6

Type 2 TA systems:

Type 3 TA systems:

Additional candidates

Additional candidates (based on similarity)

Key reviews

Sabine Brantl, Natalie Jahn
sRNAs in bacterial type I and type III toxin-antitoxin systems.
FEMS Microbiol Rev: 2015, 39(3);413-27
[PubMed:25808661] [] [DOI] (I p)

Christopher F Schuster, Ralph Bertram
Toxin-antitoxin systems are ubiquitous and versatile modulators of prokaryotic cell fate.
FEMS Microbiol Lett: 2013, 340(2);73-85
[PubMed:23289536] [] [DOI] (I p)

Sylvain Durand, Natalie Jahn, Ciarán Condon, Sabine Brantl
Type I toxin-antitoxin systems in Bacillus subtilis.
RNA Biol: 2012, 9(12);1491-7
[PubMed:23059907] [] [DOI] (I p)

Tim R Blower, Francesca L Short, Feng Rao, Kenji Mizuguchi, Xue Y Pei, Peter C Fineran, Ben F Luisi, George P C Salmond
Identification and classification of bacterial Type III toxin-antitoxin systems encoded in chromosomal and plasmid genomes.
Nucleic Acids Res: 2012, 40(13);6158-73
[PubMed:22434880] [] [DOI] (I p)

Tim R Blower, George P C Salmond, Ben F Luisi
Balancing at survival's edge: the structure and adaptive benefits of prokaryotic toxin-antitoxin partners.
Curr Opin Struct Biol: 2011, 21(1);109-18
[PubMed:21315267] [] [DOI] (I p)

Laurence Van Melderen
Toxin-antitoxin systems: why so many, what for?
Curr Opin Microbiol: 2010, 13(6);781-5
[PubMed:21041110] [] [DOI] (I p)

Elizabeth M Fozo, Kira S Makarova, Svetlana A Shabalina, Natalya Yutin, Eugene V Koonin, Gisela Storz
Abundance of type I toxin-antitoxin systems in bacteria: searches for new candidates and discovery of novel families.
Nucleic Acids Res: 2010, 38(11);3743-59
[PubMed:20156992] [] [DOI] (I p)

Kira S Makarova, Yuri I Wolf, Eugene V Koonin
Comprehensive comparative-genomic analysis of type 2 toxin-antitoxin systems and related mobile stress response systems in prokaryotes.
Biol Direct: 2009, 4;19
[PubMed:19493340] [] [DOI] (I e)

Laurence Van Melderen, Manuel Saavedra De Bast
Bacterial toxin-antitoxin systems: more than selfish entities?
PLoS Genet: 2009, 5(3);e1000437
[PubMed:19325885] [] [DOI] (I p)

Elizabeth M Fozo, Matthew R Hemm, Gisela Storz
Small toxic proteins and the antisense RNAs that repress them.
Microbiol Mol Biol Rev: 2008, 72(4);579-89, Table of Contents
[PubMed:19052321] [] [DOI] (I p)

Kenn Gerdes, Susanne K Christensen, Anders Løbner-Olesen
Prokaryotic toxin-antitoxin stress response loci.
Nat Rev Microbiol: 2005, 3(5);371-82
[PubMed:15864262] [] [DOI] (P p)

Finbarr Hayes
Toxins-antitoxins: plasmid maintenance, programmed cell death, and cell cycle arrest.
Science: 2003, 301(5639);1496-9
[PubMed:12970556] [] [DOI] (I p)

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