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  • Description: control of SigD activity, required for full SigD activity, activates the flagellar type III secretion export apparatus by the membrane protein FliP

Gene name swrB
Synonyms ylxL
Essential no
Product unknown
Function control of SigD activity
Gene expression levels in SubtiExpress: swrB
MW, pI 18 kDa, 4.417
Gene length, protein length 501 bp, 167 aa
Immediate neighbours sigD, rpsB
Sequences Protein DNA DNA_with_flanks
Genetic context
YlxL context.gif
This image was kindly provided by SubtiList
Expression at a glance   PubMed
SwrB expression.png

Categories containing this gene/protein

sigma factors and their control, motility and chemotaxis

This gene is a member of the following regulons

CodY regulon, DegU regulon, SigD regulon, Spo0A regulon

The gene

Basic information

  • Locus tag: BSU16480

Phenotypes of a mutant

  • no swarming motility on B medium PubMed
  • defective in the assembly of the flagellar hook PubMed

Database entries

  • DBTBS entry: [1]
  • SubtiList entry: [2]

Additional information

The protein

Basic information/ Evolution

  • Catalyzed reaction/ biological activity:
  • Protein family:
  • Paralogous protein(s):

Extended information on the protein

  • Kinetic information:
  • Domains:
  • Modification:
  • Cofactor(s):
  • Effectors of protein activity:

Database entries

  • Structure:
  • KEGG entry: [3]
  • E.C. number:

Additional information

Expression and regulation

  • Additional information:

Biological materials

  • Mutant:
  • Expression vector:
  • lacZ fusion:
  • GFP fusion:
  • two-hybrid system:
  • Antibody:

Labs working on this gene/protein

Your additional remarks


Andrew M Phillips, Rebecca A Calvo, Daniel B Kearns
Functional Activation of the Flagellar Type III Secretion Export Apparatus.
PLoS Genet.: 2015, 11(8);e1005443
[PubMed:26244495] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (I e)

Serena Mordini, Cecilia Osera, Simone Marini, Francesco Scavone, Riccardo Bellazzi, Alessandro Galizzi, Cinzia Calvio
The role of SwrA, DegU and P(D3) in fla/che expression in B. subtilis.
PLoS ONE: 2013, 8(12);e85065
[PubMed:24386445] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (I e)

Loralyn M Cozy, Andrew M Phillips, Rebecca A Calvo, Ashley R Bate, Yi-Huang Hsueh, Richard Bonneau, Patrick Eichenberger, Daniel B Kearns
SlrA/SinR/SlrR inhibits motility gene expression upstream of a hypersensitive and hysteretic switch at the level of σ(D) in Bacillus subtilis.
Mol. Microbiol.: 2012, 83(6);1210-28
[PubMed:22329926] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (I p)

Kassem Hamze, Daria Julkowska, Sabine Autret, Krzysztof Hinc, Krzysztofa Nagorska, Agnieszka Sekowska, I Barry Holland, Simone J Séror
Identification of genes required for different stages of dendritic swarming in Bacillus subtilis, with a novel role for phrC.
Microbiology (Reading): 2009, 155(Pt 2);398-412
[PubMed:19202088] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (P p)

Kazuo Kobayashi
Gradual activation of the response regulator DegU controls serial expression of genes for flagellum formation and biofilm formation in Bacillus subtilis.
Mol. Microbiol.: 2007, 66(2);395-409
[PubMed:17850253] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (P p)

Jean-Christophe Meile, Ling Juan Wu, S Dusko Ehrlich, Jeff Errington, Philippe Noirot
Systematic localisation of proteins fused to the green fluorescent protein in Bacillus subtilis: identification of new proteins at the DNA replication factory.
Proteomics: 2006, 6(7);2135-46
[PubMed:16479537] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (P p)

Daniel B Kearns, Richard Losick
Cell population heterogeneity during growth of Bacillus subtilis.
Genes Dev.: 2005, 19(24);3083-94
[PubMed:16357223] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (P p)

H Werhane, P Lopez, M Mendel, M Zimmer, G W Ordal, L M Márquez-Magaña
The last gene of the fla/che operon in Bacillus subtilis, ylxL, is required for maximal sigmaD function.
J. Bacteriol.: 2004, 186(12);4025-9
[PubMed:15175317] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (P p)

Daniel B Kearns, Frances Chu, Rivka Rudner, Richard Losick
Genes governing swarming in Bacillus subtilis and evidence for a phase variation mechanism controlling surface motility.
Mol. Microbiol.: 2004, 52(2);357-69
[PubMed:15066026] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (P p)

Virginie Molle, Masaya Fujita, Shane T Jensen, Patrick Eichenberger, José E González-Pastor, Jun S Liu, Richard Losick
The Spo0A regulon of Bacillus subtilis.
Mol. Microbiol.: 2003, 50(5);1683-701
[PubMed:14651647] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (P p)

W Estacio, S S Anna-Arriola, M Adedipe, L M Márquez-Magaña
Dual promoters are responsible for transcription initiation of the fla/che operon in Bacillus subtilis.
J. Bacteriol.: 1998, 180(14);3548-55
[PubMed:9657996] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (P p)

R Allmansberger
Temporal regulation of sigD from Bacillus subtilis depends on a minor promoter in front of the gene.
J. Bacteriol.: 1997, 179(20);6531-5
[PubMed:9335309] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (P p)

L M Márquez-Magaña, M J Chamberlin
Characterization of the sigD transcription unit of Bacillus subtilis.
J. Bacteriol.: 1994, 176(8);2427-34
[PubMed:8157612] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (P p)