Sporulation

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Genes in this functional category

Spore coat proteins

Class I

  • these proteins completly cover the membrane around the forespore
  • early localizing spore coat proteins

Class II

  • these proteins localize simultaneously with the class I proteins but begin to encase the spore only after engulfment is complete
  • early localizing spore coat proteins

Class III

  • these proteins localize simultaneously with the class I and class II proteins but start to encase the spore only after the appearance of phase dark spores (hr 4.5)
  • early localizing spore coat proteins

Class IV

  • late localizing spore coat proteins (only after completion of engulfment)
  • intermediate between classes III and V

Class V

  • late localizing spore coat proteins (only after completion of engulfment)
  • localize exclusively to phase dark spores
  • localize simultaneously to both poles of the spore

Class VI

  • late localizing spore coat proteins (only after completion of engulfment)
  • most delayed initial localization
  • localize excluseively to phase bright spores

not yet assigned

Important publications on the spore coat

Wishwas R Abhyankar, Kiki Kamphorst, Bhagyashree N Swarge, Henk van Veen, Nicole N van der Wel, Stanley Brul, Chris G de Koster, Leo J de Koning
The Influence of Sporulation Conditions on the Spore Coat Protein Composition of Bacillus subtilis Spores.
Front Microbiol: 2016, 7;1636
[PubMed:27790212] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (P e)

George C Stewart
The Exosporium Layer of Bacterial Spores: a Connection to the Environment and the Infected Host.
Microbiol. Mol. Biol. Rev.: 2015, 79(4);437-57
[PubMed:26512126] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (I p)

Hong Qin, Adam Driks
Contrasting evolutionary patterns of spore coat proteins in two Bacillus species groups are linked to a difference in cellular structure.
BMC Evol. Biol.: 2013, 13;261
[PubMed:24283940] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (I e)

Peter T McKenney, Adam Driks, Patrick Eichenberger
The Bacillus subtilis endospore: assembly and functions of the multilayered coat.
Nat. Rev. Microbiol.: 2013, 11(1);33-44
[PubMed:23202530] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (I p)

Haiyan Qiao, Daniela Krajcikova, Caisheng Liu, Yongjun Li, Hongda Wang, Imrich Barak, Jilin Tang
The interactions of spore-coat morphogenetic proteins studied by single-molecule recognition force spectroscopy.
Chem Asian J: 2012, 7(4);725-31
[PubMed:22262582] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (I p)

Peter Setlow
Dynamics of the assembly of a complex macromolecular structure--the coat of spores of the bacterium Bacillus subtilis.
Mol. Microbiol.: 2012, 83(2);241-4
[PubMed:22192522] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (I p)

Peter T McKenney, Patrick Eichenberger
Dynamics of spore coat morphogenesis in Bacillus subtilis.
Mol. Microbiol.: 2012, 83(2);245-60
[PubMed:22171814] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (I p)

Peter T McKenney, Adam Driks, Haig A Eskandarian, Paul Grabowski, Jonathan Guberman, Katherine H Wang, Zemer Gitai, Patrick Eichenberger
A distance-weighted interaction map reveals a previously uncharacterized layer of the Bacillus subtilis spore coat.
Curr. Biol.: 2010, 20(10);934-8
[PubMed:20451384] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (I p)


Spore coat protein/ based on similarity

Small acid-soluble spore proteins

Non-homologous end joining DNA repair

Utilization of specific carbon sources

Sporulation proteins/ other


Newly identified sporulation proteins (based on transcription profiling)

Important reviews

Jatin Narula, Masaya Fujita, Oleg A Igoshin
Functional requirements of cellular differentiation: lessons from Bacillus subtilis.
Curr. Opin. Microbiol.: 2016, 34;38-46
[PubMed:27501460] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (I p)

Jelle Slager, Jan-Willem Veening
Hard-Wired Control of Bacterial Processes by Chromosomal Gene Location.
Trends Microbiol.: 2016, 24(10);788-800
[PubMed:27364121] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (I p)

Frédérique Pompeo, Elodie Foulquier, Anne Galinier
Impact of Serine/Threonine Protein Kinases on the Regulation of Sporulation in Bacillus subtilis.
Front Microbiol: 2016, 7;568
[PubMed:27148245] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (P e)

Kelly A Fimlaid, Aimee Shen
Diverse mechanisms regulate sporulation sigma factor activity in the Firmicutes.
Curr. Opin. Microbiol.: 2015, 24;88-95
[PubMed:25646759] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (I p)

Irene S Tan, Kumaran S Ramamurthi
Spore formation in Bacillus subtilis.
Environ Microbiol Rep: 2014, 6(3);212-25
[PubMed:24983526] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (I p)

Michael Y Galperin, Sergei L Mekhedov, Pere Puigbo, Sergey Smirnov, Yuri I Wolf, Daniel J Rigden
Genomic determinants of sporulation in Bacilli and Clostridia: towards the minimal set of sporulation-specific genes.
Environ. Microbiol.: 2012, 14(11);2870-90
[PubMed:22882546] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (I p)

Douglas Higgins, Jonathan Dworkin
Recent progress in Bacillus subtilis sporulation.
FEMS Microbiol. Rev.: 2012, 36(1);131-48
[PubMed:22091839] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (I p)

Michiel J L de Hoon, Patrick Eichenberger, Dennis Vitkup
Hierarchical evolution of the bacterial sporulation network.
Curr. Biol.: 2010, 20(17);R735-45
[PubMed:20833318] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (I p)

Imrich Barák, Anthony J Wilkinson
Where asymmetry in gene expression originates.
Mol. Microbiol.: 2005, 57(3);611-20
[PubMed:16045607] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (P p)

Michael D Yudkin, Joanna Clarkson
Differential gene expression in genetically identical sister cells: the initiation of sporulation in Bacillus subtilis.
Mol. Microbiol.: 2005, 56(3);578-89
[PubMed:15819616] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (P p)

Imrich Barák, Ezio Ricca, Simon M Cutting
From fundamental studies of sporulation to applied spore research.
Mol. Microbiol.: 2005, 55(2);330-8
[PubMed:15659154] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (P p)

Patrick J Piggot, David W Hilbert
Sporulation of Bacillus subtilis.
Curr. Opin. Microbiol.: 2004, 7(6);579-86
[PubMed:15556029] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (P p)

David W Hilbert, Patrick J Piggot
Compartmentalization of gene expression during Bacillus subtilis spore formation.
Microbiol. Mol. Biol. Rev.: 2004, 68(2);234-62
[PubMed:15187183] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (P p)

Jeff Errington
Regulation of endospore formation in Bacillus subtilis.
Nat. Rev. Microbiol.: 2003, 1(2);117-26
[PubMed:15035041] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (P p)

R R Freedman
Raynaud's phenomenon, lack of neurological influence.
Br. J. Rheumatol.: 1990, 29(6);492-3
[PubMed:2257467] [WorldCat.org] (P p)


Important original publications

Alexander J Meeske, Christopher D A Rodrigues, Jacqueline Brady, Hoong Chuin Lim, Thomas G Bernhardt, David Z Rudner
High-Throughput Genetic Screens Identify a Large and Diverse Collection of New Sporulation Genes in Bacillus subtilis.
PLoS Biol.: 2016, 14(1);e1002341
[PubMed:26735940] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (I e)

Sonali Ghosh, George Korza, Mark Maciejewski, Peter Setlow
Analysis of metabolism in dormant spores of Bacillus species by 31P nuclear magnetic resonance analysis of low-molecular-weight compounds.
J. Bacteriol.: 2015, 197(5);992-1001
[PubMed:25548246] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (I p)

Nikola Ojkic, Javier López-Garrido, Kit Pogliano, Robert G Endres
Bistable forespore engulfment in Bacillus subtilis by a zipper mechanism in absence of the cell wall.
PLoS Comput. Biol.: 2014, 10(10);e1003912
[PubMed:25356555] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (I e)

Adaoha E C Ihekwaba, Ivan Mura, Gary C Barker
Computational modelling and analysis of the molecular network regulating sporulation initiation in Bacillus subtilis.
BMC Syst Biol: 2014, 8;119
[PubMed:25341802] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (I e)

Jordi van Gestel, Martin A Nowak, Corina E Tarnita
The evolution of cell-to-cell communication in a sporulating bacterium.
PLoS Comput. Biol.: 2012, 8(12);e1002818
[PubMed:23284278] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (I p)

Wishwas Abhyankar, Alex Ter Beek, Henk Dekker, Remco Kort, Stanley Brul, Chris G de Koster
Gel-free proteomic identification of the Bacillus subtilis insoluble spore coat protein fraction.
Proteomics: 2011, 11(23);4541-50
[PubMed:21905219] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (I p)

Langyong Mao, Shantong Jiang, Bin Wang, Liang Chen, Qin Yao, Keping Chen
Protein profile of Bacillus subtilis spore.
Curr. Microbiol.: 2011, 63(2);198-205
[PubMed:21667307] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (I p)

Daisuke Imamura, Ritsuko Kuwana, Hiromu Takamatsu, Kazuhito Watabe
Proteins involved in formation of the outermost layer of Bacillus subtilis spores.
J. Bacteriol.: 2011, 193(16);4075-80
[PubMed:21665972] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (I p)


Important web site: SporeWeb

  • SporeWeb is a dynamic web-based platform describing all stages of sporulation in B. subtilis from a gene regulatory point of view. The website is intended for all microbial researches interested in bacterial sporulation and/or gene regulatory networks and contains useful information for both sporulation experts and non-experts.
  • You can find:
    • detailed review-like descriptions of all sporulation stages,
    • schematic representations of regulatory events during every stage,
    • links to specific regulators and their regulons,
    • access to detailed Excel sheets of all sporulation-specific regulons,
    • Cytoscape-generated layouts of regulon interactions during a specific stage,
    • a tool to generate your own Cytoscape interaction figure for specific genes of interest,
    • heat maps showing expression values of all sporulation genes during the sporulation cycle (derived from Nicolas et al., 2012),
    • direct links to other knowledge platforms, such as SubtiWiki,
    • an extensive list of references for further detailed information.
  • The website is self explanatory, but you can also take a quick look at the short introduction video.
  • Importantly, the website is database driven: it can (and will) be updated as new exciting insights become available in literature.

Robyn T Eijlander, Anne de Jong, Antonina O Krawczyk, Siger Holsappel, Oscar P Kuipers
SporeWeb: an interactive journey through the complete sporulation cycle of Bacillus subtilis.
Nucleic Acids Res.: 2014, 42(Database issue);D685-91
[PubMed:24170806] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (I p)


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