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Gene name sigX
Synonyms ypuM
Essential no
Product RNA polymerase ECF-type sigma factor SigX
Function cell surface properties
Gene expression levels in SubtiExpress: sigX
Interactions involving this protein in SubtInteract: SigX
MW, pI 23 kDa, 6.086
Gene length, protein length 582 bp, 194 aa
Immediate neighbours rsiX, resE
Sequences Protein DNA DNA_with_flanks
Genetic context
SigX context.gif
This image was kindly provided by SubtiList
Expression at a glance   PubMed
SigX expression.png


Categories containing this gene/protein

transcription, sigma factors and their control, cell envelope stress proteins (controlled by SigM, V, W, X, Y), membrane proteins

This gene is a member of the following regulons

SigX regulon, YvrHb regulon

The SigX regulon

The gene

Basic information

  • Locus tag: BSU23100

Phenotypes of a mutant

Database entries

  • DBTBS entry: [1]
  • SubtiList entry: [2]

Additional information

The protein

Basic information/ Evolution

  • Catalyzed reaction/ biological activity:
  • Protein family: ECF subfamily (according to Swiss-Prot)
  • Paralogous protein(s):

Extended information on the protein

  • Kinetic information:
  • Domains:
  • Modification:
  • Cofactor(s):
  • Effectors of protein activity:

Database entries

  • Structure:
  • KEGG entry: [3]
  • E.C. number:

Additional information

Expression and regulation

  • Regulation:
  • Additional information:
    • number of protein molecules per cell (minimal medium with glucose and ammonium): 156 PubMed

Biological materials

  • Mutant:
  • Expression vector:
  • lacZ fusion:
  • GFP fusion:
  • two-hybrid system:
  • Antibody:

Labs working on this gene/protein

Your additional remarks



Bianca Mendes Souza, Thiago Luiz de Paula Castro, Rodrigo Dias de Oliveira Carvalho, Nubia Seyffert, Artur Silva, Anderson Miyoshi, Vasco Azevedo
σ(ECF) factors of gram-positive bacteria: a focus on Bacillus subtilis and the CMNR group.
Virulence: 2014, 5(5);587-600
[PubMed:24921931] [] [DOI] (I p)

The SigX regulon

Thorsten Mascher, Anna-Barbara Hachmann, John D Helmann
Regulatory overlap and functional redundancy among Bacillus subtilis extracytoplasmic function sigma factors.
J. Bacteriol.: 2007, 189(19);6919-27
[PubMed:17675383] [] [DOI] (P p)

M S Turner, J D Helmann
Mutations in multidrug efflux homologs, sugar isomerases, and antimicrobial biosynthesis genes differentially elevate activity of the sigma(X) and sigma(W) factors in Bacillus subtilis.
J. Bacteriol.: 2000, 182(18);5202-10
[PubMed:10960106] [] (P p)

X Huang, K L Fredrick, J D Helmann
Promoter recognition by Bacillus subtilis sigmaW: autoregulation and partial overlap with the sigmaX regulon.
J. Bacteriol.: 1998, 180(15);3765-70
[PubMed:9683469] [] (P p)

Other original publications

Michihiro Hashimoto, Takahiro Seki, Satoshi Matsuoka, Hiroshi Hara, Kei Asai, Yoshito Sadaie, Kouji Matsumoto
Induction of extracytoplasmic function sigma factors in Bacillus subtilis cells with defects in lipoteichoic acid synthesis.
Microbiology (Reading, Engl.): 2013, 159(Pt 1);23-35
[PubMed:23103977] [] [DOI] (I p)

Satoshi Matsuoka, Minako Chiba, Yu Tanimura, Michihiro Hashimoto, Hiroshi Hara, Kouji Matsumoto
Abnormal morphology of Bacillus subtilis ugtP mutant cells lacking glucolipids.
Genes Genet. Syst.: 2011, 86(5);295-304
[PubMed:22362028] [] (I p)

Yun Luo, Kei Asai, Yoshito Sadaie, John D Helmann
Transcriptomic and phenotypic characterization of a Bacillus subtilis strain without extracytoplasmic function σ factors.
J. Bacteriol.: 2010, 192(21);5736-45
[PubMed:20817771] [] [DOI] (I p)

Ewan J Murray, Mark A Strauch, Nicola R Stanley-Wall
SigmaX is involved in controlling Bacillus subtilis biofilm architecture through the AbrB homologue Abh.
J. Bacteriol.: 2009, 191(22);6822-32
[PubMed:19767430] [] [DOI] (I p)

Yun Luo, John D Helmann
Extracytoplasmic function sigma factors with overlapping promoter specificity regulate sublancin production in Bacillus subtilis.
J. Bacteriol.: 2009, 191(15);4951-8
[PubMed:19465659] [] [DOI] (I p)

Warawan Eiamphungporn, John D Helmann
Extracytoplasmic function sigma factors regulate expression of the Bacillus subtilis yabE gene via a cis-acting antisense RNA.
J. Bacteriol.: 2009, 191(3);1101-5
[PubMed:19047346] [] [DOI] (I p)

Masakuni Serizawa, Keisuke Kodama, Hiroki Yamamoto, Kazuo Kobayashi, Naotake Ogasawara, Junichi Sekiguchi
Functional analysis of the YvrGHb two-component system of Bacillus subtilis: identification of the regulated genes by DNA microarray and northern blot analyses.
Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem.: 2005, 69(11);2155-69
[PubMed:16306698] [] (P p)

Mika Yoshimura, Kei Asai, Yoshito Sadaie, Hirofumi Yoshikawa
Interaction of Bacillus subtilis extracytoplasmic function (ECF) sigma factors with the N-terminal regions of their potential anti-sigma factors.
Microbiology (Reading, Engl.): 2004, 150(Pt 3);591-9
[PubMed:14993308] [] (P p)

Min Cao, John D Helmann
The Bacillus subtilis extracytoplasmic-function sigmaX factor regulates modification of the cell envelope and resistance to cationic antimicrobial peptides.
J. Bacteriol.: 2004, 186(4);1136-46
[PubMed:14762009] [] (P p)

Thorsten Mascher, Neil G Margulis, Tao Wang, Rick W Ye, John D Helmann
Cell wall stress responses in Bacillus subtilis: the regulatory network of the bacitracin stimulon.
Mol. Microbiol.: 2003, 50(5);1591-604
[PubMed:14651641] [] (P p)

Min Cao, John D Helmann
Regulation of the Bacillus subtilis bcrC bacitracin resistance gene by two extracytoplasmic function sigma factors.
J. Bacteriol.: 2002, 184(22);6123-9
[PubMed:12399481] [] (P p)

J Qiu, J D Helmann
The -10 region is a key promoter specificity determinant for the Bacillus subtilis extracytoplasmic-function sigma factors sigma(X) and sigma(W).
J. Bacteriol.: 2001, 183(6);1921-7
[PubMed:11222589] [] [DOI] (P p)

X Huang, J D Helmann
Identification of target promoters for the Bacillus subtilis sigma X factor using a consensus-directed search.
J. Mol. Biol.: 1998, 279(1);165-73
[PubMed:9636707] [] [DOI] (P p)

S Brutsche, V Braun
SigX of Bacillus subtilis replaces the ECF sigma factor fecI of Escherichia coli and is inhibited by RsiX.
Mol. Gen. Genet.: 1997, 256(4);416-25
[PubMed:9393439] [] (P p)

X Huang, A Decatur, A Sorokin, J D Helmann
The Bacillus subtilis sigma(X) protein is an extracytoplasmic function sigma factor contributing to survival at high temperature.
J. Bacteriol.: 1997, 179(9);2915-21
[PubMed:9139908] [] (P p)

V Azevedo, A Sorokin, S D Ehrlich, P Serror
The transcriptional organization of the Bacillus subtilis 168 chromosome region between the spoVAF and serA genetic loci.
Mol. Microbiol.: 1993, 10(2);397-405
[PubMed:7934830] [] (P p)

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