Biosynthesis of cofactors

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Genes in this functional category

Biosynthesis/ acquisition of biotin

Biosynthesis/ acquisition of riboflavin/ fad

Biosynthesis/ acquisition of thiamine

Biosynthesis of coenzyme a

Biosynthesis of folate

Biosynthesis of heme/ siroheme

Biosynthesis of lipoic acid (For complete biosynthetic pathway see PubMed)

Biosynthesis of menaquinone

Biosynthesis of menaquinone/ based on similarity

Biosynthesis of molybdopterin

Biosynthesis of nad(p)

Biosynthesis of pyridoxal phosphate

Metabolism of cofactors in SubtiPathways

Important original publications

Miglena Manandhar, John E Cronan
Pimelic acid, the first precursor of the Bacillus subtilis biotin synthesis pathway, exists as the free acid and is assembled by fatty acid synthesis.
Mol. Microbiol.: 2017, 104(4);595-607
[PubMed:28196402] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (I p)

Fabian M Commichau, Ariane Alzinger, Rafael Sande, Werner Bretzel, Frederik M Meyer, Bastien Chevreux, Markus Wyss, Hans-Peter Hohmann, Zoltán Prágai
Overexpression of a non-native deoxyxylulose-dependent vitamin B6 pathway in Bacillus subtilis for the production of pyridoxine.
Metab. Eng.: 2014, 25;38-49
[PubMed:24972371] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (I p)


Important reviews

Jonathan Rosenberg, Till Ischebeck, Fabian M Commichau
Vitamin B6 metabolism in microbes and approaches for fermentative production.
Biotechnol. Adv.: 2016, 35(1);31-40
[PubMed:27890703] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (I p)

John E Cronan
Assembly of Lipoic Acid on Its Cognate Enzymes: an Extraordinary and Essential Biosynthetic Pathway.
Microbiol. Mol. Biol. Rev.: 2016, 80(2);429-50
[PubMed:27074917] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (I e)

Susanne Katharina Schwechheimer, Enoch Y Park, José Luis Revuelta, Judith Becker, Christoph Wittmann
Biotechnology of riboflavin.
Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol.: 2016, 100(5);2107-19
[PubMed:26758294] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (I p)

Markus Birkenmeier, Susanne Neumann, Thorsten Röder
Kinetic modeling of riboflavin biosynthesis in Bacillus subtilis under production conditions.
Biotechnol. Lett.: 2014, 36(5);919-28
[PubMed:24442413] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (I p)

Tadhg P Begley, Steven E Ealick, Fred W McLafferty
Thiamin biosynthesis: still yielding fascinating biological chemistry.
Biochem. Soc. Trans.: 2012, 40(3);555-60
[PubMed:22616866] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (I p)

Charles A Abbas, Andriy A Sibirny
Genetic control of biosynthesis and transport of riboflavin and flavin nucleotides and construction of robust biotechnological producers.
Microbiol. Mol. Biol. Rev.: 2011, 75(2);321-60
[PubMed:21646432] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (I p)

Steven Lin, John E Cronan
Closing in on complete pathways of biotin biosynthesis.
Mol Biosyst: 2011, 7(6);1811-21
[PubMed:21437340] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (I p)

Christopher T Jurgenson, Tadhg P Begley, Steven E Ealick
The structural and biochemical foundations of thiamin biosynthesis.
Annu. Rev. Biochem.: 2009, 78;569-603
[PubMed:19348578] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (I p)

Tadhg P Begley, Abhishek Chatterjee, Jeremiah W Hanes, Amrita Hazra, Steven E Ealick
Cofactor biosynthesis--still yielding fascinating new biological chemistry.
Curr Opin Chem Biol: 2008, 12(2);118-25
[PubMed:18314013] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (P p)

Ethan Settembre, Tadhg P Begley, Steven E Ealick
Structural biology of enzymes of the thiamin biosynthesis pathway.
Curr. Opin. Struct. Biol.: 2003, 13(6);739-47
[PubMed:14675553] [WorldCat.org] (P p)

A Marquet, B T Bui, D Florentin
Biosynthesis of biotin and lipoic acid.
Vitam. Horm.: 2001, 61;51-101
[PubMed:11153271] [WorldCat.org] (P p)

T P Begley, D M Downs, S E Ealick, F W McLafferty, A P Van Loon, S Taylor, N Campobasso, H J Chiu, C Kinsland, J J Reddick, J Xi
Thiamin biosynthesis in prokaryotes.
Arch. Microbiol.: 1999, 171(5);293-300
[PubMed:10382260] [WorldCat.org] (P p)


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