Biofilm formation

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Biofilms are the result of the multicellular lifestyle of B. subtilis. They are characterized by the formation of a matrix polysaccharide (poly-N-acetyl glucosamine as a major polysaccharide PubMed) and an amyloid-like protein, TasA. Correction of sfp, epsC, swrAA, and degQ as well as introduction of rapP from a plasmid present in NCIB3610 results in biofilm formation in B. subtilis 168 PubMed.

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SinR regulon


Biofilm formation in SubtiPathways

Labs working on biofilm formation

Key genes and operons involved in biofilm formation

Important original publications

Sara Kesel, Stefan Grumbein, Ina Gümperlein, Marwa Tallawi, Anna-Kristina Marel, Oliver Lieleg, Madeleine Opitz
Direct Comparison of Physical Properties of Bacillus subtilis NCIB 3610 and B-1 Biofilms.
Appl. Environ. Microbiol.: 2016, 82(8);2424-32
[PubMed:26873313] [] [DOI] (I e)

Carine Douarche, Jean-Marc Allain, Eric Raspaud
Bacillus subtilis Bacteria Generate an Internal Mechanical Force within a Biofilm.
Biophys. J.: 2015, 109(10);2195-202
[PubMed:26588577] [] [DOI] (I p)

Jintao Liu, Arthur Prindle, Jacqueline Humphries, Marçal Gabalda-Sagarra, Munehiro Asally, Dong-yeon D Lee, San Ly, Jordi Garcia-Ojalvo, Gürol M Süel
Metabolic co-dependence gives rise to collective oscillations within biofilms.
Nature: 2015, 523(7562);550-4
[PubMed:26200335] [] [DOI] (I p)

Roberto R Grau, Paula de Oña, Maritta Kunert, Cecilia Leñini, Ramses Gallegos-Monterrosa, Eisha Mhatre, Darío Vileta, Verónica Donato, Theresa Hölscher, Wilhelm Boland, Oscar P Kuipers, Ákos T Kovács
A Duo of Potassium-Responsive Histidine Kinases Govern the Multicellular Destiny of Bacillus subtilis.
MBio: 2015, 6(4);e00581
[PubMed:26152584] [] [DOI] (I e)

Theresa Hölscher, Benjamin Bartels, Yu-Cheng Lin, Ramses Gallegos-Monterrosa, Alexa Price-Whelan, Roberto Kolter, Lars E P Dietrich, Ákos T Kovács
Motility, Chemotaxis and Aerotaxis Contribute to Competitiveness during Bacterial Pellicle Biofilm Development.
J. Mol. Biol.: 2015, 427(23);3695-708
[PubMed:26122431] [] [DOI] (I p)

Damien Roux, Colette Cywes-Bentley, Yi-Fan Zhang, Stephanie Pons, Melissa Konkol, Daniel B Kearns, Dustin J Little, P Lynne Howell, David Skurnik, Gerald B Pier
Identification of Poly-N-acetylglucosamine as a Major Polysaccharide Component of the Bacillus subtilis Biofilm Matrix.
J. Biol. Chem.: 2015, 290(31);19261-72
[PubMed:26078454] [] [DOI] (I p)

Yun Chen, Kevin Gozzi, Fang Yan, Yunrong Chai
Acetic Acid Acts as a Volatile Signal To Stimulate Bacterial Biofilm Formation.
MBio: 2015, 6(3);e00392
[PubMed:26060272] [] [DOI] (I e)

Jordi van Gestel, Hera Vlamakis, Roberto Kolter
From cell differentiation to cell collectives: Bacillus subtilis uses division of labor to migrate.
PLoS Biol.: 2015, 13(4);e1002141
[PubMed:25894589] [] [DOI] (I e)

Keith M Bromley, Ryan J Morris, Laura Hobley, Giovanni Brandani, Rachel M C Gillespie, Matthew McCluskey, Ulrich Zachariae, Davide Marenduzzo, Nicola R Stanley-Wall, Cait E MacPhee
Interfacial self-assembly of a bacterial hydrophobin.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.: 2015, 112(17);5419-24
[PubMed:25870300] [] [DOI] (I p)

Matthew J Powers, Edgardo Sanabria-Valentín, Albert A Bowers, Elizabeth A Shank
Inhibition of Cell Differentiation in Bacillus subtilis by Pseudomonas protegens.
J. Bacteriol.: 2015, 197(13);2129-38
[PubMed:25825426] [] [DOI] (I p)

D R Espeso, A Carpio, B Einarsson
Differential growth of wrinkled biofilms.
Phys Rev E Stat Nonlin Soft Matter Phys: 2015, 91(2);022710
[PubMed:25768534] [] [DOI] (I p)

Rachel Bleich, Jeramie D Watrous, Pieter C Dorrestein, Albert A Bowers, Elizabeth A Shank
Thiopeptide antibiotics stimulate biofilm formation in Bacillus subtilis.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.: 2015, 112(10);3086-91
[PubMed:25713360] [] [DOI] (I p)

Shaul Pollak, Shira Omer Bendori, Avigdor Eldar
A complex path for domestication of B. subtilis sociality.
Curr. Genet.: 2015, 61(4);493-6
[PubMed:25680358] [] [DOI] (I p)

Shira Omer Bendori, Shaul Pollak, Dorit Hizi, Avigdor Eldar
The RapP-PhrP quorum-sensing system of Bacillus subtilis strain NCIB3610 affects biofilm formation through multiple targets, due to an atypical signal-insensitive allele of RapP.
J. Bacteriol.: 2015, 197(3);592-602
[PubMed:25422306] [] [DOI] (I p)

Hiraku Takada, Masato Morita, Yuh Shiwa, Ryoma Sugimoto, Shota Suzuki, Fujio Kawamura, Hirofumi Yoshikawa
Cell motility and biofilm formation in Bacillus subtilis are affected by the ribosomal proteins, S11 and S21.
Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem.: 2014, 78(5);898-907
[PubMed:25035996] [] [DOI] (I p)

Thomas M Norman, Nathan D Lord, Johan Paulsson, Richard Losick
Memory and modularity in cell-fate decision making.
Nature: 2013, 503(7477);481-6
[PubMed:24256735] [] [DOI] (I p)

Fernando Gómez-Aguado, María Teresa Corcuera, María Luisa Gómez-Lus, María Antonia de la Parte, Carmen Ramos, César García-Rey, María José Alonso, José Prieto
Histological approach to Bacillus subtilis colony-biofilm: evolving internal architecture and sporulation dynamics.
Histol. Histopathol.: 2013, 28(10);1351-60
[PubMed:23645570] [] [DOI] (I p)

Iztok Dogsa, Mojca Brloznik, David Stopar, Ines Mandic-Mulec
Exopolymer diversity and the role of levan in Bacillus subtilis biofilms.
PLoS ONE: 2013, 8(4);e62044
[PubMed:23637960] [] [DOI] (I e)

Pascale B Beauregard, Yunrong Chai, Hera Vlamakis, Richard Losick, Roberto Kolter
Bacillus subtilis biofilm induction by plant polysaccharides.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.: 2013, 110(17);E1621-30
[PubMed:23569226] [] [DOI] (I p)

Moshe Shemesh, Yunrong Chai
A combination of glycerol and manganese promotes biofilm formation in Bacillus subtilis via histidine kinase KinD signaling.
J. Bacteriol.: 2013, 195(12);2747-54
[PubMed:23564171] [] [DOI] (I p)

A Bridier, T Meylheuc, R Briandet
Realistic representation of Bacillus subtilis biofilms architecture using combined microscopy (CLSM, ESEM and FESEM).
Micron: 2013, 48;65-9
[PubMed:23517761] [] [DOI] (I p)

Thomas Böttcher, Ilana Kolodkin-Gal, Roberto Kolter, Richard Losick, Jon Clardy
Synthesis and activity of biomimetic biofilm disruptors.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.: 2013, 135(8);2927-30
[PubMed:23406351] [] [DOI] (I p)

Miguel Trejo, Carine Douarche, Virginie Bailleux, Christophe Poulard, Sandrine Mariot, Christophe Regeard, Eric Raspaud
Elasticity and wrinkled morphology of Bacillus subtilis pellicles.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.: 2013, 110(6);2011-6
[PubMed:23341623] [] [DOI] (I p)

James N Wilking, Vasily Zaburdaev, Michael De Volder, Richard Losick, Michael P Brenner, David A Weitz
Liquid transport facilitated by channels in Bacillus subtilis biofilms.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.: 2013, 110(3);848-52
[PubMed:23271809] [] [DOI] (I p)

Munehiro Asally, Mark Kittisopikul, Pau Rué, Yingjie Du, Zhenxing Hu, Tolga Çağatay, Andra B Robinson, Hongbing Lu, Jordi Garcia-Ojalvo, Gürol M Süel
Localized cell death focuses mechanical forces during 3D patterning in a biofilm.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.: 2012, 109(46);18891-6
[PubMed:23012477] [] [DOI] (I p)

Yun Chen, Fang Yan, Yunrong Chai, Hongxia Liu, Roberto Kolter, Richard Losick, Jian-hua Guo
Biocontrol of tomato wilt disease by Bacillus subtilis isolates from natural environments depends on conserved genes mediating biofilm formation.
Environ. Microbiol.: 2013, 15(3);848-64
[PubMed:22934631] [] [DOI] (I p)

Juan C Garcia-Betancur, Ana Yepes, Johannes Schneider, Daniel Lopez
Single-cell analysis of Bacillus subtilis biofilms using fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry.
J Vis Exp: 2012, (60);
[PubMed:22371091] [] [DOI] (I e)

Agnese Seminara, Thomas E Angelini, James N Wilking, Hera Vlamakis, Senan Ebrahim, Roberto Kolter, David A Weitz, Michael P Brenner
Osmotic spreading of Bacillus subtilis biofilms driven by an extracellular matrix.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.: 2012, 109(4);1116-21
[PubMed:22232655] [] [DOI] (I p)

Anna L McLoon, Sarah B Guttenplan, Daniel B Kearns, Roberto Kolter, Richard Losick
Tracing the domestication of a biofilm-forming bacterium.
J. Bacteriol.: 2011, 193(8);2027-34
[PubMed:21278284] [] [DOI] (I p)

Arnaud Bridier, Dominique Le Coq, Florence Dubois-Brissonnet, Vincent Thomas, Stéphane Aymerich, Romain Briandet
The spatial architecture of Bacillus subtilis biofilms deciphered using a surface-associated model and in situ imaging.
PLoS ONE: 2011, 6(1);e16177
[PubMed:21267464] [] [DOI] (I e)

Nicola R Stanley, Beth A Lazazzera
Defining the genetic differences between wild and domestic strains of Bacillus subtilis that affect poly-gamma-dl-glutamic acid production and biofilm formation.
Mol. Microbiol.: 2005, 57(4);1143-58
[PubMed:16091050] [] [DOI] (P p)

Key reviews

Jordi van Gestel, Hera Vlamakis, Roberto Kolter
Division of Labor in Biofilms: the Ecology of Cell Differentiation.
Microbiol Spectr: 2015, 3(2);MB-0002-2014
[PubMed:26104716] [] [DOI] (I p)

Laura Hobley, Catriona Harkins, Cait E MacPhee, Nicola R Stanley-Wall
Giving structure to the biofilm matrix: an overview of individual strategies and emerging common themes.
FEMS Microbiol. Rev.: 2015, 39(5);649-69
[PubMed:25907113] [] [DOI] (I p)

Lynne S Cairns, Laura Hobley, Nicola R Stanley-Wall
Biofilm formation by Bacillus subtilis: new insights into regulatory strategies and assembly mechanisms.
Mol. Microbiol.: 2014, 93(4);587-98
[PubMed:24988880] [] [DOI] (I p)

Benjamin Mielich-Süss, Daniel Lopez
Molecular mechanisms involved in Bacillus subtilis biofilm formation.
Environ. Microbiol.: 2015, 17(3);555-65
[PubMed:24909922] [] [DOI] (I p)

Eisha Mhatre, Ramses Gallegos Monterrosa, Akos T Kovács
From environmental signals to regulators: modulation of biofilm development in Gram-positive bacteria.
J. Basic Microbiol.: 2014, 54(7);616-32
[PubMed:24771632] [] [DOI] (I p)

Dennis Claessen, Daniel E Rozen, Oscar P Kuipers, Lotte Søgaard-Andersen, Gilles P van Wezel
Bacterial solutions to multicellularity: a tale of biofilms, filaments and fruiting bodies.
Nat. Rev. Microbiol.: 2014, 12(2);115-24
[PubMed:24384602] [] [DOI] (I p)

Robert Belas
When the swimming gets tough, the tough form a biofilm.
Mol. Microbiol.: 2013, 90(1);1-5
[PubMed:23927648] [] [DOI] (I p)

Diego Romero
Bacterial determinants of the social behavior of Bacillus subtilis.
Res. Microbiol.: 2013, 164(7);788-98
[PubMed:23791621] [] [DOI] (I p)

Hera Vlamakis, Yunrong Chai, Pascale Beauregard, Richard Losick, Roberto Kolter
Sticking together: building a biofilm the Bacillus subtilis way.
Nat. Rev. Microbiol.: 2013, 11(3);157-68
[PubMed:23353768] [] [DOI] (I p)

Elizabeth Anne Shank, Roberto Kolter
Extracellular signaling and multicellularity in Bacillus subtilis.
Curr. Opin. Microbiol.: 2011, 14(6);741-7
[PubMed:22024380] [] [DOI] (I p)

Tjakko Abee, Akos T Kovács, Oscar P Kuipers, Stijn van der Veen
Biofilm formation and dispersal in Gram-positive bacteria.
Curr. Opin. Biotechnol.: 2011, 22(2);172-9
[PubMed:21109420] [] [DOI] (I p)

Roberto Kolter
Biofilms in lab and nature: a molecular geneticist's voyage to microbial ecology.
Int. Microbiol.: 2010, 13(1);1-7
[PubMed:20890834] [] [DOI] (I p)

Massimiliano Marvasi, Pieter T Visscher, Lilliam Casillas Martinez
Exopolymeric substances (EPS) from Bacillus subtilis: polymers and genes encoding their synthesis.
FEMS Microbiol. Lett.: 2010, 313(1);1-9
[PubMed:20735481] [] [DOI] (I p)

Daniel López, Hera Vlamakis, Roberto Kolter
Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol: 2010, 2(7);a000398
[PubMed:20519345] [] [DOI] (I p)

Daniel Lopez, Hera Vlamakis, Roberto Kolter
Generation of multiple cell types in Bacillus subtilis.
FEMS Microbiol. Rev.: 2009, 33(1);152-63
[PubMed:19054118] [] [DOI] (P p)

Hera Vlamakis, Claudio Aguilar, Richard Losick, Roberto Kolter
Control of cell fate by the formation of an architecturally complex bacterial community.
Genes Dev.: 2008, 22(7);945-53
[PubMed:18381896] [] [DOI] (P p)

Wolf-Rainer Abraham
Controlling biofilms of gram-positive pathogenic bacteria.
Curr. Med. Chem.: 2006, 13(13);1509-24
[PubMed:16787201] [] (P p)

J A Shapiro
Thinking about bacterial populations as multicellular organisms.
Annu. Rev. Microbiol.: 1998, 52;81-104
[PubMed:9891794] [] [DOI] (P p)

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