SubtiBank SubtiBank
Category: Biofilm formation
Save the date! 20th International Conference on Bacilli and Gram-Positive Bacteria. Washington, D.C. July 23-26, 2019.

Category: Biofilm formation


4. Lifestyles

4.1. Exponential and early post-exponential lifestyles

4.1.2. Biofilm formation Matrix polysaccharide synthesis

epsAbiofilm formation
epsBbiofilm formation
epsC[category|SW 4.1.2|Biofilm formation], biosynthesis of N,N'-diacetylbacillosamine
epsD[SW|biofilm formation]
epsEbiofilm formation
epsF[SW|biofilm formation]
epsGbiofilm formation
epsHsynthesis of extracellular poly-N-acetylglucosamine
epsIsynthesis of extracellular poly-N-acetylglucosamine
epsJsynthesis of extracellular poly-N-acetylglucosamine
epsKexport of extracellular poly-N-acetylglucosamine
epsLbiofilm formation
epsM[category|SW 4.1.2|Biofilm formation], biosynthesis of N,N'-diacetylbacillosamine
epsN[category|SW 4.1.2|Biofilm formation], biosynthesis of N,N'-diacetylbacillosamine
epsObiofilm formation
galEgalactose utilization


  • 26078454
  • Amyloid protein synthesis, secretion and assembly

    sipW[SW|biofilm formation]
    tapA[SW|biofilm formation]
    tasA[SW|biofilm formation] Repellent surface layer

    bslA[SW|biofilm formation], control of entry into [SW|sporulation] via the [SW|phosphorelay] Regulation

    degQregulation of exoenzyme synthesis
    degUregulation of degradative enzymes, [SW|genetic competence], and other adaptive responses
    ftsHcell division, sporulation initiation
    kinCinitiation of [SW|sporulation]
    kinDinitiation of [SW|sporulation]
    ptkAprotein phosphorylation
    ptpZprotein tyrosine dephosphorylation
    sinIcontrol of [SW|biofilm formation]
    sinRcontrol of [SW|biofilm formation]
    slrAcontrol of motility and biofilm formation
    slrRregulation of initiation of [SW|biofilm formation] and of autolysis
    spo0Ainitiation of [SW|sporulation]
    tkmAcontrol of protein tyrosine phosphorylation
    vegcontrol of [SW|biofilm formation]
    ymdBcontrol of bistable gene expression
    yugOpotassium exporter

    important reviews

  • 30218468,30482826
  • Other proteins required for biofilm formation

    ampSrequired for biofilm formation
    floTinvolved in the control of membrane fluidity
    luxSmethionine salvage
    remAcontrol of biofilm formation
    remBregulation of [SW|biofilm formation]
    rnyRNA processing and degradation
    sfp/1phosphopantetheinylates a serine residue in each of the seven peptidyl carrier protein domains of the first three subunits of surfactin synthetase (SrfAA-SrfAB-SrfAC) and AcpK
    sfp/2phosphopantetheinylates a serine residue in each of the seven peptidyl carrier protein domains of the first three subunits of surfactin synthetase (SrfAA-SrfAB-SrfAC) and AcpK
    speAspermidine, polyamine biosynthesis
    speDspermidine, polyamine biosynthesis
    swrAcontrol of [protein|D343D2096664A972026D911E7A17A35C7B1CD1C9|DegU] activity
    swrAA/2essential for swarming differentiation on solid surfaces
    yisPcontrol of KinC activity
    ylbFcontrol of [protein|872CCB5A49C9000BD95E4B0472556D5F60F7D7A4|RNase Y] activity, see [SW|Targets of the Y complex]
    ymcAcontrol of [protein|872CCB5A49C9000BD95E4B0472556D5F60F7D7A4|RNase Y] activity, see [SW|Targets of the Y complex]
    yvcAcomplex colony development
    ywcCcontrol of [gene|C17C296F3EB2E106C380E3B5D784F3FA63F4C9B7|slrA] expression
    yxaBbiofilm formation, survival of salt and ethanol stress Other proteins required for efficient pellicle biofilm formation

    cheAchemotactic signal modulator
    cheD[SW|motility and chemotaxis]
    cheVcontrol of CheA activity
    cheYmodulation of flagellar switch bias
    flgEmovement and chemotaxis
    fliFmovement and chemotaxis
    hag[SW|motility and chemotaxis]
    hemATmovement towards oxygen
    motA[category|SW 4.1.1|Motility and chemotaxis]
    sigDregulation of flagella, motility, chemotaxis and autolysis


  • mutant is out-competed by wild type
  • Description

  • Biofilms are the result of the multicellular lifestyle of B. subtilis. They are characterized by the formation of a matrix polysaccharide (poly-N-acetyl glucosamine as a major polysaccharide [pubmed|26078454]) and an amyloid-like protein, [protein|BF97457E986656E4A9FE7A858F5BDF1759850D5C|TasA]. Correction of [gene|1627167E7E9DBE444161A94D9F76317612C6401C|sfp/2], [gene|5DB168A3D087AAEB003D7548A1A4356ABD07F712|epsC], [gene|5D479874B43F521DB52EDC2C27CDE4967F22DE47|swrA], [gene|0CEE58D799AF41634D161DBDF3D67EEFFF1C861E|swrAA/2], and [gene|40C1E81BAB04BD1CC98FC57DF25D27DBDFEB5A59|degQ] as well as introduction of rapP from a plasmid present in NCIB3610 results in biofilm formation in B. subtilis 168 [pubmed|21278284].
  • Labs working on biofilm formation

  • [SW|Roberto Grau]
  • [SW|Daniel Kearns]
  • [SW|Roberto Kolter]
  • [SW|Akos T Kovacs]
  • [SW|Oscar Kuipers]
  • [SW|Beth Lazazzera]
  • [SW|Richard Losick]
  • [SW|Eric Raspaud]
  • [SW|Nicola Stanley-Wall]
  • [SW|Jörg Stülke]
  • important original publications

  • 26122431, 26152584, 26078454, 25870300, 26060272, 25825426, 23271809, 23300252, 21267464, 21278284, 16091050, 22232655, 22371091, 23341623, 23406351, 25768534, 23012477,22934631, 23517761, 23569226, 23564171, 25035996, 23637960, 23645570, 24256735, 25422306 ,25680358, 25713360, 25894589, 26200335, 26873313,28386026 29163384,29887307,30297741
  • key reviews

  • 16787201,24771632,9891794,19054118,20890834,21109420,20519345,18381896,22024380,20735481,23353768,23927648,24909922,26104716,24988880,24608334,25907113,28622518,30769118