SubtiBank SubtiBank
Category: Biofilm formation
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Category: Biofilm formation


4. Lifestyles

4.1. Exponential and early post-exponential lifestyles

4.1.2. Biofilm formation Matrix polysaccharide synthesis

epsAbiofilm formation
epsBbiofilm formation
epsC[category|SW 4.1.2|Biofilm formation], biosynthesis of N,N'-diacetylbacillosamine
epsD[SW|biofilm formation]
epsEbiofilm formation
epsF[SW|biofilm formation]
epsGbiofilm formation
epsHsynthesis of extracellular poly-N-acetylglucosamine
epsIsynthesis of extracellular poly-N-acetylglucosamine
epsJsynthesis of extracellular poly-N-acetylglucosamine
epsKexport of extracellular poly-N-acetylglucosamine
epsLbiofilm formation
epsM[category|SW 4.1.2|Biofilm formation], biosynthesis of N,N'-diacetylbacillosamine
epsN[category|SW 4.1.2|Biofilm formation], biosynthesis of N,N'-diacetylbacillosamine
epsObiofilm formation
galEgalactose utilization


  • 26078454
  • Amyloid protein synthesis, secretion and assembly

    sipW[SW|biofilm formation]
    tapA[SW|biofilm formation]
    tasA[SW|biofilm formation] Repellent surface layer

    bslA[SW|biofilm formation], control of entry into [SW|sporulation] via the [SW|phosphorelay] Regulation

    degQregulation of exoenzyme synthesis
    degUregulation of degradative enzymes, [SW|genetic competence], and other adaptive responses
    ftsHcell division, sporulation initiation
    kinCinitiation of [SW|sporulation]
    kinDinitiation of [SW|sporulation]
    ptkAprotein phosphorylation
    ptpZprotein tyrosine dephosphorylation
    sinIcontrol of [SW|biofilm formation]
    sinRcontrol of [SW|biofilm formation]
    slrAcontrol of motility and biofilm formation
    slrRregulation of initiation of [SW|biofilm formation] and of autolysis
    spo0Ainitiation of [SW|sporulation]
    tkmAcontrol of protein tyrosine phosphorylation
    vegcontrol of [SW|biofilm formation]
    ymdBcontrol of bistable gene expression
    yugOpotassium exporter

    important reviews

  • 30218468,30482826
  • Other proteins required for biofilm formation

    ampSrequired for biofilm formation
    dhbAbiosynthesis of the siderophore bacillibactin
    dhbBbiosynthesis of the siderophore bacillibactin
    dhbCbiosynthesis of the siderophore bacillibactin
    floTcontrol of membrane fluidity
    gpsAbiosynthesis of phospholipids
    luxSmethionine salvage
    menHbiosynthesis of menaquinone
    remAcontrol of biofilm formation
    remBregulation of [SW|biofilm formation]
    rnyRNA processing and degradation
    rqcHrescue of stalled ribosomes
    sdhCTCA cycle
    sfp/1phosphopantetheinylates a serine residue in each of the seven peptidyl carrier protein domains of the first three subunits of surfactin synthetase (SrfAA-SrfAB-SrfAC) and AcpK
    sfp/2phosphopantetheinylates a serine residue in each of the seven peptidyl carrier protein domains of the first three subunits of surfactin synthetase (SrfAA-SrfAB-SrfAC) and AcpK
    speAspermidine, polyamine biosynthesis
    speDspermidine, polyamine biosynthesis
    swrAcontrol of [protein|D343D2096664A972026D911E7A17A35C7B1CD1C9|DegU] activity
    swrAA/2essential for swarming differentiation on solid surfaces
    yisPcontrol of [protein|A656321846B2E0D1F39B528E2D8B8E620CCD1148|KinC] activity
    ylbFcontrol of [protein|872CCB5A49C9000BD95E4B0472556D5F60F7D7A4|RNase Y] activity, see [SW|Targets of the Y complex]
    ymcAcontrol of [protein|872CCB5A49C9000BD95E4B0472556D5F60F7D7A4|RNase Y] activity, see [SW|Targets of the Y complex]
    yvcAcomplex colony development
    ywcCcontrol of [gene|C17C296F3EB2E106C380E3B5D784F3FA63F4C9B7|slrA] expression
    yxaBbiofilm formation, survival of salt and ethanol stress Other proteins required for efficient pellicle biofilm formation

    cheAchemotactic signal modulator
    cheD[SW|motility and chemotaxis]
    cheVcontrol of CheA activity
    cheYmodulation of flagellar switch bias
    flgEmovement and chemotaxis
    fliFmovement and chemotaxis
    hag[SW|motility and chemotaxis]
    hemATmovement towards oxygen
    motA[category|SW 4.1.1|Motility and chemotaxis]
    sigDregulation of flagella, motility, chemotaxis and autolysis


  • mutant is out-competed by wild type
  • Description

  • Biofilms are the result of the multicellular lifestyle of B. subtilis. They are characterized by the formation of a matrix polysaccharide (poly-N-acetyl glucosamine as a major polysaccharide [pubmed|26078454]) and an amyloid-like protein, [protein|BF97457E986656E4A9FE7A858F5BDF1759850D5C|TasA]. Correction of [gene|1627167E7E9DBE444161A94D9F76317612C6401C|sfp/2], [gene|5DB168A3D087AAEB003D7548A1A4356ABD07F712|epsC], [gene|5D479874B43F521DB52EDC2C27CDE4967F22DE47|swrA], [gene|0CEE58D799AF41634D161DBDF3D67EEFFF1C861E|swrAA/2], and [gene|40C1E81BAB04BD1CC98FC57DF25D27DBDFEB5A59|degQ] as well as introduction of rapP from a plasmid present in NCIB3610 results in biofilm formation in B. subtilis 168 [pubmed|21278284].
  • Labs working on biofilm formation

  • [SW|Roberto Grau]
  • [SW|Daniel Kearns]
  • [SW|Roberto Kolter]
  • [SW|Akos T Kovacs]
  • [SW|Oscar Kuipers]
  • [SW|Beth Lazazzera]
  • [SW|Richard Losick]
  • [SW|Eric Raspaud]
  • [SW|Nicola Stanley-Wall]
  • [SW|Jörg Stülke]
  • important original publications

  • 26122431, 26152584, 26078454, 25870300, 26060272, 25825426, 23271809, 23300252, 21267464, 21278284, 16091050, 22232655, 22371091, 23341623, 23406351, 25768534, 23012477,22934631, 23517761, 23569226, 23564171, 25035996, 23637960, 23645570, 24256735, 25422306 ,25680358, 25713360, 25894589, 26200335, 26873313,28386026 29163384,29887307,30297741,31113899,31420537,32221356,32753507,32871001
  • key reviews

  • 16787201,24771632,9891794,19054118,20890834,21109420,20519345,18381896,22024380,20735481,23353768,23927648,24909922,26104716,24988880,24608334,25907113,28622518,30769118