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Categories containing this gene/protein

biofilm formation

This gene is a member of the following regulons

AbrB regulon, RemA regulon, SinR regulon


  • Coordinates on the chromosome (coding sequence): 2,553,081 -> 2,553,866
  • Phenotypes of a mutant

  • altered cell death pattern in colonies PubMed
  • The protein

    Catalyzed reaction/ biological activity

  • forms amyloid fibers that bind cells together in the biofilm PubMed
  • Protein family

  • peptidase M73 family (according to Swiss-Prot)
  • Paralogous protein(s)

    Kinetic information




    Effectors of protein activity



  • extracellular (signal peptide) PubMed, secretion requires SipW PubMed
  • membrane PubMed
  • Interactions

  • forms fibers of variable length and 10-15 nm in width PubMed
  • TapA-TasA PubMed
  • SipW-TasA PubMed
  • Additional information

    Expression and Regulation


  • tapA-sipW-tasA PubMed
  • Sigma factor

  • SigA PubMed
  • Regulation

  • repressed by casamino acids PubMed
  • repressed by SinR PubMed
  • repressed during logrithmic growth (AbrB) PubMed
  • Regulatory mechanism

  • AbrB: transcription repression PubMed
  • SinR: transcription repression PubMed
  • RemA: transcription activation PubMed
  • Additional information

  • induction by sequestration of SinR by SinI or SlrA PubMed or by SlrR PubMed
  • the tapA-sipW-tasA operon is not expressed in a ymdB mutant PubMed
  • the amount of the mRNA is substantially decreased upon depletion of RNase Y (this is likely due to the increased stability of the sinR mRNA) PubMed
  • Biological materials


  • MGNA-C449 (yqhF::erm), available at the NBRP B. subtilis, Japan
  • Expression vector

    lacZ fusion

    GFP fusion

    two-hybrid system

    FLAG-tag construct


    Labs working on this gene/protein



    Romero D, Kolter R

    Functional amyloids in bacteria

    Int Microbiol. 2014 Jun;17(2):65-73. doi: 10.2436/20.1501.01.208. Review. PubMed PMID: 26418850.
    Hobley L, Harkins C, MacPhee CE, Stanley-Wall NR

    Giving structure to the biofilm matrix: an overview of individual strategies and emerging common themes

    FEMS Microbiol Rev. 2015 Sep;39(5):649-69. doi: 10.1093/femsre/fuv015. Epub 2015 Apr 22. Review. PubMed PMID: 25907113; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4551309.
    Cairns LS, Hobley L, Stanley-Wall NR

    Biofilm formation by Bacillus subtilis: new insights into regulatory strategies and assembly mechanisms

    Mol Microbiol. 2014 Aug;93(4):587-98. doi: 10.1111/mmi.12697. Epub 2014 Jul 18. Review. PubMed PMID: 24988880; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4238804.
    Driks A

    Tapping into the biofilm: insights into assembly and disassembly of a novel amyloid fibre in Bacillus subtilis

    Mol Microbiol. 2011 Jun;80(5):1133-6. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2958.2011.07666.x. Epub 2011 Apr 25. PubMed PMID: 21488983.
    Marvasi M, Visscher PT, Casillas Martinez L

    Exopolymeric substances (EPS) from Bacillus subtilis: polymers and genes encoding their synthesis

    FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2010 Dec;313(1):1-9. doi: 10.1111/j.1574-6968.2010.02085.x. Review. PubMed PMID: 20735481.
    Chai Y, Norman T, Kolter R, Losick R

    An epigenetic switch governing daughter cell separation in Bacillus subtilis

    Genes Dev. 2010 Apr 15;24(8):754-65. doi: 10.1101/gad.1915010. Epub 2010 Mar 29. PubMed PMID: 20351052; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2854391.

    Original publications

    van Gestel J, Vlamakis H, Kolter R

    From cell differentiation to cell collectives: Bacillus subtilis uses division of labor to migrate

    PLoS Biol. 2015 Apr 20;13(4):e1002141. doi: 10.1371/journal.pbio.1002141. eCollection 2015 Apr. PubMed PMID: 25894589; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4403855.
    Romero D, Vlamakis H, Losick R, Kolter R

    Functional analysis of the accessory protein TapA in Bacillus subtilis amyloid fiber assembly

    J Bacteriol. 2014 Apr;196(8):1505-13. doi: 10.1128/JB.01363-13. Epub 2014 Jan 31. PubMed PMID: 24488317; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3993358.
    Winkelman JT, Bree AC, Bate AR, Eichenberger P, Gourse RL, Kearns DB

    RemA is a DNA-binding protein that activates biofilm matrix gene expression in Bacillus subtilis

    Mol Microbiol. 2013 Jun;88(5):984-97. doi: 10.1111/mmi.12235. Epub 2013 May 7. PubMed PMID: 23646920; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3732408.
    Chai L, Romero D, Kayatekin C, Akabayov B, Vlamakis H, Losick R, Kolter R

    Isolation, characterization, and aggregation of a structured bacterial matrix precursor

    J Biol Chem. 2013 Jun 14;288(24):17559-68. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M113.453605. Epub 2013 Apr 30. PubMed PMID: 23632024; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3682555.
    Romero D, Sanabria-Valentín E, Vlamakis H, Kolter R

    Biofilm inhibitors that target amyloid proteins

    Chem Biol. 2013 Jan 24;20(1):102-10. doi: 10.1016/j.chembiol.2012.10.021. PubMed PMID: 23352144; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3559003.
    Andersson EK, Chapman M

    Small molecule disruption of B

    subtilis biofilms by targeting the amyloid matrix. Chem Biol. 2013 Jan 24;20(1):5-7. doi: 10.1016/j.chembiol.2013.01.004. PubMed PMID: 23352134; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3646361.
    Asally M, Kittisopikul M, Rué P, Du Y, Hu Z, Çağatay T, Robinson AB, Lu H, Garcia-Ojalvo J, Süel GM

    Localized cell death focuses mechanical forces during 3D patterning in a biofilm

    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012 Nov 13;109(46):18891-6. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1212429109. Epub 2012 Sep 24. PubMed PMID: 23012477; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3503208.
    Diethmaier C, Pietack N, Gunka K, Wrede C, Lehnik-Habrink M, Herzberg C, Hübner S, Stülke J

    A novel factor controlling bistability in Bacillus subtilis: the YmdB protein affects flagellin expression and biofilm formation

    J Bacteriol. 2011 Nov;193(21):5997-6007. doi: 10.1128/JB.05360-11. Epub 2011 Aug 19. PubMed PMID: 21856853; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3194898.
    Lehnik-Habrink M, Schaffer M, Mäder U, Diethmaier C, Herzberg C, Stülke J

    RNA processing in Bacillus subtilis: identification of targets of the essential RNase Y

    Mol Microbiol. 2011 Sep;81(6):1459-73. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2958.2011.07777.x. Epub 2011 Aug 4. PubMed PMID: 21815947.
    Romero D, Aguilar C, Losick R, Kolter R

    Amyloid fibers provide structural integrity to Bacillus subtilis biofilms

    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010 Feb 2;107(5):2230-4. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0910560107. Epub 2010 Jan 13. PubMed PMID: 20080671; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2836674.
    Voigt B, Antelmann H, Albrecht D, Ehrenreich A, Maurer KH, Evers S, Gottschalk G, van Dijl JM, Schweder T, Hecker M

    Cell physiology and protein secretion of Bacillus licheniformis compared to Bacillus subtilis

    J Mol Microbiol Biotechnol. 2009;16(1-2):53-68. doi: 10.1159/000142894. Epub 2008 Oct 29. PubMed PMID: 18957862.
    Hahne H, Wolff S, Hecker M, Becher D

    From complementarity to comprehensiveness--targeting the membrane proteome of growing Bacillus subtilis by divergent approaches

    Proteomics. 2008 Oct;8(19):4123-36. doi: 10.1002/pmic.200800258. PubMed PMID: 18763711.
    Kobayashi K

    SlrR/SlrA controls the initiation of biofilm formation in Bacillus subtilis

    Mol Microbiol. 2008 Sep;69(6):1399-410. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2958.2008.06369.x. Epub 2008 Jul 18. PubMed PMID: 18647168.
    Chu F, Kearns DB, McLoon A, Chai Y, Kolter R, Losick R

    A novel regulatory protein governing biofilm formation in Bacillus subtilis

    Mol Microbiol. 2008 Jun;68(5):1117-27. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2958.2008.06201.x. Epub 2008 Apr 21. PubMed PMID: 18430133; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2430766.
    Chai Y, Chu F, Kolter R, Losick R

    Bistability and biofilm formation in Bacillus subtilis

    Mol Microbiol. 2008 Jan;67(2):254-63. Epub 2007 Nov 28. PubMed PMID: 18047568; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2430929.
    Strauch MA, Bobay BG, Cavanagh J, Yao F, Wilson A, Le Breton Y

    Abh and AbrB control of Bacillus subtilis antimicrobial gene expression

    J Bacteriol. 2007 Nov;189(21):7720-32. Epub 2007 Aug 24. PubMed PMID: 17720793; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2168746.
    Branda SS, Chu F, Kearns DB, Losick R, Kolter R

    A major protein component of the Bacillus subtilis biofilm matrix

    Mol Microbiol. 2006 Feb;59(4):1229-38. PubMed PMID: 16430696.
    Chu F, Kearns DB, Branda SS, Kolter R, Losick R

    Targets of the master regulator of biofilm formation in Bacillus subtilis

    Mol Microbiol. 2006 Feb;59(4):1216-28. PubMed PMID: 16430695.
    Mäder U, Homuth G, Scharf C, Büttner K, Bode R, Hecker M

    Transcriptome and proteome analysis of Bacillus subtilis gene expression modulated by amino acid availability

    J Bacteriol. 2002 Aug;184(15):4288-95. PubMed PMID: 12107147; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC135197.
    Serrano M, Zilhão R, Ricca E, Ozin AJ, Moran CP Jr, Henriques AO

    A Bacillus subtilis secreted protein with a role in endospore coat assembly and function

    J Bacteriol. 1999 Jun;181(12):3632-43. PubMed PMID: 10368135; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC93838.
    Stöver AG, Driks A

    Secretion, localization, and antibacterial activity of TasA, a Bacillus subtilis spore-associated protein

    J Bacteriol. 1999 Mar;181(5):1664-72. PubMed PMID: 10049401; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC93559.
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