SubtiBank SubtiBank

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Categories containing this gene/protein

transcription factors and their control, phosphorelay, biofilm formation, phosphoproteins

This gene is a member of the following regulons

SigH regulon, Spo0A regulon

The Spo0A regulon


  • Coordinates on the chromosome (coding sequence): 2,518,023 -> 2,518,826
  • Phenotypes of a mutant

  • inactivation of spo0A restores beta-lactam resistance in a sigM mutant PubMed
  • altered cell death pattern in colonies PubMed
  • The protein

    Catalyzed reaction/ biological activity

  • activation of gene expression at the onset of sporulation (Spo0A regulon)
  • coordination between DNA replication and initiation of sporulation by binding to sites close to the oriC (this limits re-initiation of replication) PubMed
  • required for biofilm formation PubMed
  • required for sliding PubMed
  • Protein family

    Paralogous protein(s)

    Kinetic information



  • receives phosphorylation from Spo0B, dephosphorylation by Spo0E, direct phosphorylation by KinC upon potassium leakage PubMed
  • Cofactors

    Effectors of protein activity

  • the phosphorylation state affects DNA binding activity
  • interaction with MecA inhibits the transcriptional activity of Spo0A∼P PubMed
  • Structure

  • 1QMP (with phosphorylated aspartate, Geobacillus stearothermophilus), 1FC3 (trans-activation domain, Geobacillus stearothermophilus), 1LQ1 (complex with DNA)
  • Localization


  • KinC-Spo0A PubMed
  • Spo0A-Spo0E PubMed
  • Spo0A-SigA PubMed
  • Spo0A-Spo0B
  • SinI-Spo0A PubMed
  • MecA-Spo0A PubMed
  • Additional information

    Expression and Regulation


  • spo0A PubMed
  • Sigma factor

  • SigA PubMed, SigH PubMed
  • Regulation

  • repressed under conditions that trigger sporulation (Spo0A) PubMed
  • repressed by casamino acids PubMed
  • repressed by SinR overexpression PubMed
  • repressed by soj PubMed
  • expression increases when drowth rate declines PubMed
  • Regulatory mechanism

  • Spo0A: transcription repression PubMed
  • Spo0A synthesis is subject to a post-transcriptional control mechanism such that translation of mRNAs originating from the SigA-dependent promoter is impeded due to RNA secondary structure PubMed
  • Additional information

    Biological materials


  • MGNA-C448 (spo0A::erm), available at the NBRP B. subtilis, Japan
  • BKG9 (spo0A::aphA3), available in Jörg Stülke's lab
  • SS995 (spo0A::ery) PubMed
  • Expression vector

    lacZ fusion

    GFP fusion

    two-hybrid system

    FLAG-tag construct


    Labs working on this gene/protein

  • Tony Wilkinson, York University, U.K. homepage
  • Imrich Barak, Slovak Academy of Science, Bratislava, Slovakia homepage
  • Charles Moran, Emory University, NC, USA homepage
  • References


    Jameson KH, Wilkinson AJ

    Control of Initiation of DNA Replication in Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli

    Genes (Basel). 2017 Jan 10;8(1). pii: E22. doi: 10.3390/genes8010022. Review. PubMed PMID: 28075389; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5295017.
    Kovács ÁT

    Bacterial differentiation via gradual activation of global regulators

    Curr Genet. 2016 Feb;62(1):125-8. doi: 10.1007/s00294-015-0524-8. Epub 2015 Oct 12. Review. PubMed PMID: 26458398.
    Wolański M, Jakimowicz D, Zakrzewska-Czerwińska J

    Fifty years after the replicon hypothesis: cell-specific master regulators as new players in chromosome replication control

    J Bacteriol. 2014 Aug 15;196(16):2901-11. doi: 10.1128/JB.01706-14. Epub 2014 Jun 9. Review. PubMed PMID: 24914187; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4135643.
    Gross L

    Built-in timer delays differentiation

    PLoS Biol. 2012 Jan;10(1):e1001254. doi: 10.1371/journal.pbio.1001254. Epub 2012 Jan 31. PubMed PMID: 22303284; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3269413.
    González-Pastor JE

    Cannibalism: a social behavior in sporulating Bacillus subtilis

    FEMS Microbiol Rev. 2011 May;35(3):415-24. doi: 10.1111/j.1574-6976.2010.00253.x. Epub 2010 Oct 19. Review. PubMed PMID: 20955377.
    de Hoon MJ, Eichenberger P, Vitkup D

    Hierarchical evolution of the bacterial sporulation network

    Curr Biol. 2010 Sep 14;20(17):R735-45. doi: 10.1016/j.cub.2010.06.031. Review. PubMed PMID: 20833318; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2944226.
    Katayama T, Ozaki S, Keyamura K, Fujimitsu K

    Regulation of the replication cycle: conserved and diverse regulatory systems for DnaA and oriC

    Nat Rev Microbiol. 2010 Mar;8(3):163-70. doi: 10.1038/nrmicro2314. Review. PubMed PMID: 20157337.
    López D, Kolter R

    Extracellular signals that define distinct and coexisting cell fates in Bacillus subtilis

    FEMS Microbiol Rev. 2010 Mar;34(2):134-49. doi: 10.1111/j.1574-6976.2009.00199.x. Epub 2009 Nov 23. Review. PubMed PMID: 20030732.
    Schultz D, Wolynes PG, Ben Jacob E, Onuchic JN

    Deciding fate in adverse times: sporulation and competence in Bacillus subtilis

    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009 Dec 15;106(50):21027-34. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0912185106. Epub 2009 Dec 7. PubMed PMID: 19995980; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2795487.
    Seredick S, Spiegelman GB

    Lessons and questions from the structure of the Spo0A activation domain

    Trends Microbiol. 2001 Apr;9(4):148-51. PubMed PMID: 11286862.

    The Spo0A regulon

    Fujita M, González-Pastor JE, Losick R

    High- and low-threshold genes in the Spo0A regulon of Bacillus subtilis

    J Bacteriol. 2005 Feb;187(4):1357-68. PubMed PMID: 15687200; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC545642.
    Molle V, Fujita M, Jensen ST, Eichenberger P, González-Pastor JE, Liu JS, Losick R

    The Spo0A regulon of Bacillus subtilis

    Mol Microbiol. 2003 Dec;50(5):1683-701. PubMed PMID: 14651647.

    Other original Publications

    Even-Tov E, Omer Bendori S, Pollak S, Eldar A

    Transient Duplication-Dependent Divergence and Horizontal Transfer Underlie the Evolutionary Dynamics of Bacterial Cell-Cell Signaling

    PLoS Biol. 2016 Dec 29;14(12):e2000330. doi: 10.1371/journal.pbio.2000330. eCollection 2016 Dec. PubMed PMID: 28033323; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5199041.
    Defeu Soufo HJ

    A Novel Cell Type Enables B

    subtilis to Escape from Unsuccessful Sporulation in Minimal Medium. Front Microbiol. 2016 Nov 11;7:1810. eCollection 2016. PubMed PMID: 27891124; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5104909.
    Narula J, Kuchina A, Zhang F, Fujita M, Süel GM, Igoshin OA

    Slowdown of growth controls cellular differentiation

    Mol Syst Biol. 2016 May 23;12(5):871. doi: 10.15252/msb.20156691. PubMed PMID: 27216630; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5289222.
    Duan Y, Sperber AM, Herman JK

    YodL and YisK Possess Shape-Modifying Activities That Are Suppressed by Mutations in Bacillus subtilis mreB and mbl

    J Bacteriol. 2016 Jul 13;198(15):2074-88. doi: 10.1128/JB.00183-16. Print 2016 Aug 1. PubMed PMID: 27215790; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4944218.
    Hou X, Yu X, Du B, Liu K, Yao L, Zhang S, Selin C, Fernando WG, Wang C, Ding Y

    A single amino acid mutation in Spo0A results in sporulation deficiency of Paenibacillus polymyxa SC2

    Res Microbiol. 2016 Jul-Aug;167(6):472-9. doi: 10.1016/j.resmic.2016.05.002. Epub 2016 May 18. PubMed PMID: 27208661.
    Narula J, Kuchina A, Lee DY, Fujita M, Süel GM, Igoshin OA

    Chromosomal Arrangement of Phosphorelay Genes Couples Sporulation and DNA Replication

    Cell. 2015 Jul 16;162(2):328-37. doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2015.06.012. Epub 2015 Jul 9. PubMed PMID: 26165942; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4506695.
    Grau RR, de Oña P, Kunert M, Leñini C, Gallegos-Monterrosa R, Mhatre E, Vileta D, Donato V, Hölscher T, Boland W, Kuipers OP, Kovács ÁT

    A Duo of Potassium-Responsive Histidine Kinases Govern the Multicellular Destiny of Bacillus subtilis

    MBio. 2015 Jul 7;6(4):e00581. doi: 10.1128/mBio.00581-15. PubMed PMID: 26152584; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4495169.
    Ihekwaba AE, Mura I, Barker GC

    Computational modelling and analysis of the molecular network regulating sporulation initiation in Bacillus subtilis

    BMC Syst Biol. 2014 Oct 24;8:119. doi: 10.1186/s12918-014-0119-x. PubMed PMID: 25341802; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4213463.
    Serra CR, Earl AM, Barbosa TM, Kolter R, Henriques AO

    Sporulation during growth in a gut isolate of Bacillus subtilis

    J Bacteriol. 2014 Dec;196(23):4184-96. doi: 10.1128/JB.01993-14. Epub 2014 Sep 15. PubMed PMID: 25225273; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4248874.
    Marlow VL, Porter M, Hobley L, Kiley TB, Swedlow JR, Davidson FA, Stanley-Wall NR

    Phosphorylated DegU manipulates cell fate differentiation in the Bacillus subtilis biofilm

    J Bacteriol. 2014 Jan;196(1):16-27. doi: 10.1128/JB.00930-13. Epub 2013 Oct 11. PubMed PMID: 24123822; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3911142.
    Vishnoi M, Narula J, Devi SN, Dao HA, Igoshin OA, Fujita M

    Triggering sporulation in Bacillus subtilis with artificial two-component systems reveals the importance of proper Spo0A activation dynamics

    Mol Microbiol. 2013 Oct;90(1):181-94. doi: 10.1111/mmi.12357. Epub 2013 Aug 23. PubMed PMID: 23927765.
    Gupta M, Dixit M, Rao KK

    Spo0A positively regulates epr expression by negating the repressive effect of co-repressors, SinR and ScoC, in Bacillus subtilis

    J Biosci. 2013 Jun;38(2):291-9. PubMed PMID: 23660663.
    Garti-Levi S, Eswara A, Smith Y, Fujita M, Ben-Yehuda S

    Novel modulators controlling entry into sporulation in Bacillus subtilis

    J Bacteriol. 2013 Apr;195(7):1475-83. doi: 10.1128/JB.02160-12. Epub 2013 Jan 18. PubMed PMID: 23335417; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3624523.
    Boonstra M, de Jong IG, Scholefield G, Murray H, Kuipers OP, Veening JW

    Spo0A regulates chromosome copy number during sporulation by directly binding to the origin of replication in Bacillus subtilis

    Mol Microbiol. 2013 Feb;87(4):925-38. doi: 10.1111/mmi.12141. Epub 2013 Jan 21. PubMed PMID: 23301687.
    Pedrido ME, de Oña P, Ramirez W, Leñini C, Goñi A, Grau R

    Spo0A links de novo fatty acid synthesis to sporulation and biofilm development in Bacillus subtilis

    Mol Microbiol. 2013 Jan;87(2):348-67. doi: 10.1111/mmi.12102. Epub 2012 Dec 7. PubMed PMID: 23170957.
    Narula J, Devi SN, Fujita M, Igoshin OA

    Ultrasensitivity of the Bacillus subtilis sporulation decision

    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012 Dec 11;109(50):E3513-22. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1213974109. Epub 2012 Nov 19. PubMed PMID: 23169620; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3528541.
    Asally M, Kittisopikul M, Rué P, Du Y, Hu Z, Çağatay T, Robinson AB, Lu H, Garcia-Ojalvo J, Süel GM

    Localized cell death focuses mechanical forces during 3D patterning in a biofilm

    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012 Nov 13;109(46):18891-6. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1212429109. Epub 2012 Sep 24. PubMed PMID: 23012477; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3503208.
    Davidson FA, Seon-Yi C, Stanley-Wall NR

    Selective heterogeneity in exoprotease production by Bacillus subtilis

    PLoS One. 2012;7(6):e38574. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0038574. Epub 2012 Jun 20. PubMed PMID: 22745669; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3380070.
    Mirouze N, Desai Y, Raj A, Dubnau D

    Spo0A~P imposes a temporal gate for the bimodal expression of competence in Bacillus subtilis

    PLoS Genet. 2012;8(3):e1002586. doi: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1002586. Epub 2012 Mar 8. PubMed PMID: 22412392; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3297582.
    Luo Y, Helmann JD

    Analysis of the role of Bacillus subtilis σ(M) in β-lactam resistance reveals an essential role for c-di-AMP in peptidoglycan homeostasis

    Mol Microbiol. 2012 Feb;83(3):623-39. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2958.2011.07953.x. Epub 2012 Jan 4. PubMed PMID: 22211522; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3306796.
    Sen S, Garcia-Ojalvo J, Elowitz MB

    Dynamical consequences of bandpass feedback loops in a bacterial phosphorelay

    PLoS One. 2011;6(9):e25102. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0025102. Epub 2011 Sep 29. PubMed PMID: 21980382; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3182994.
    Chastanet A, Losick R

    Just-in-time control of Spo0A synthesis in Bacillus subtilis by multiple regulatory mechanisms

    J Bacteriol. 2011 Nov;193(22):6366-74. doi: 10.1128/JB.06057-11. Epub 2011 Sep 23. PubMed PMID: 21949067; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3209201.
    Banse AV, Hobbs EC, Losick R

    Phosphorylation of Spo0A by the histidine kinase KinD requires the lipoprotein med in Bacillus subtilis

    J Bacteriol. 2011 Aug;193(15):3949-55. doi: 10.1128/JB.05199-11. Epub 2011 May 27. PubMed PMID: 21622736; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3147521.
    Mirouze N, Prepiak P, Dubnau D

    Fluctuations in spo0A transcription control rare developmental transitions in Bacillus subtilis

    PLoS Genet. 2011 Apr;7(4):e1002048. doi: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1002048. Epub 2011 Apr 28. PubMed PMID: 21552330; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3084206.
    Xenopoulos P, Piggot PJ

    Regulation of growth of the mother cell and chromosome replication during sporulation of Bacillus subtilis

    J Bacteriol. 2011 Jun;193(12):3117-26. doi: 10.1128/JB.00204-11. Epub 2011 Apr 8. PubMed PMID: 21478340; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3133180.
    Prepiak P, Defrancesco M, Spadavecchia S, Mirouze N, Albano M, Persuh M, Fujita M, Dubnau D

    MecA dampens transitions to spore, biofilm exopolysaccharide and competence expression by two different mechanisms

    Mol Microbiol. 2011 May;80(4):1014-30. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2958.2011.07627.x. Epub 2011 Apr 11. PubMed PMID: 21435029; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3102577.
    Chai Y, Norman T, Kolter R, Losick R

    Evidence that metabolism and chromosome copy number control mutually exclusive cell fates in Bacillus subtilis

    EMBO J. 2011 Apr 6;30(7):1402-13. doi: 10.1038/emboj.2011.36. Epub 2011 Feb 15. PubMed PMID: 21326214; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3094124.
    Aguilar C, Vlamakis H, Guzman A, Losick R, Kolter R

    KinD is a checkpoint protein linking spore formation to extracellular-matrix production in Bacillus subtilis biofilms

    MBio. 2010 May 18;1(1). pii: e00035-10. doi: 10.1128/mBio.00035-10. PubMed PMID: 20689749; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2912670.
    Eswaramoorthy P, Dinh J, Duan D, Igoshin OA, Fujita M

    Single-cell measurement of the levels and distributions of the phosphorelay components in a population of sporulating Bacillus subtilis cells

    Microbiology. 2010 Aug;156(Pt 8):2294-304. doi: 10.1099/mic.0.038497-0. Epub 2010 Apr 22. PubMed PMID: 20413551.
    Chastanet A, Vitkup D, Yuan GC, Norman TM, Liu JS, Losick RM

    Broadly heterogeneous activation of the master regulator for sporulation in Bacillus subtilis

    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010 May 4;107(18):8486-91. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1002499107. Epub 2010 Apr 19. PubMed PMID: 20404177; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2889527.
    de Jong IG, Veening JW, Kuipers OP

    Heterochronic phosphorelay gene expression as a source of heterogeneity in Bacillus subtilis spore formation

    J Bacteriol. 2010 Apr;192(8):2053-67. doi: 10.1128/JB.01484-09. Epub 2010 Feb 12. PubMed PMID: 20154131; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2849452.
    Seredick SD, Seredick BM, Baker D, Spiegelman GB

    An A257V mutation in the bacillus subtilis response regulator Spo0A prevents regulated expression of promoters with low-consensus binding sites

    J Bacteriol. 2009 Sep;191(17):5489-98. doi: 10.1128/JB.00590-09. Epub 2009 Jul 6. PubMed PMID: 19581368; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2725607.
    Castilla-Llorente V, Meijer WJ, Salas M

    Differential Spo0A-mediated effects on transcription and replication of the related Bacillus subtilis phages Nf and phi29 explain their different behaviours in vivo

    Nucleic Acids Res. 2009 Aug;37(15):4955-64. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp504. Epub 2009 Jun 15. PubMed PMID: 19528067; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2731898.
    Castilla-Llorente V, Salas M, Meijer WJ

    Different responses to Spo0A-mediated suppression of the related Bacillus subtilis phages Nf and phi29

    Environ Microbiol. 2009 May;11(5):1137-49. doi: 10.1111/j.1462-2920.2008.01845.x. Epub 2009 Jan 15. PubMed PMID: 19207565.
    López D, Fischbach MA, Chu F, Losick R, Kolter R

    Structurally diverse natural products that cause potassium leakage trigger multicellularity in Bacillus subtilis

    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009 Jan 6;106(1):280-5. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0810940106. Epub 2008 Dec 29. PubMed PMID: 19114652; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2629187.
    Verhamme DT, Murray EJ, Stanley-Wall NR

    DegU and Spo0A jointly control transcription of two loci required for complex colony development by Bacillus subtilis

    J Bacteriol. 2009 Jan;191(1):100-8. doi: 10.1128/JB.01236-08. Epub 2008 Oct 31. PubMed PMID: 18978066; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2612447.
    Banse AV, Chastanet A, Rahn-Lee L, Hobbs EC, Losick R

    Parallel pathways of repression and antirepression governing the transition to stationary phase in Bacillus subtilis

    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008 Oct 7;105(40):15547-52. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0805203105. PubMed PMID: 18840696; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2563134.
    Kumar A, Moran CP Jr

    Promoter activation by repositioning of RNA polymerase

    J Bacteriol. 2008 May;190(9):3110-7. doi: 10.1128/JB.00096-08. Epub 2008 Feb 22. PubMed PMID: 18296515; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2347386.
    Seredick SD, Spiegelman GB

    Bacillus subtilis RNA polymerase recruits the transcription factor Spo0A approximately P to stabilize a closed complex during transcription initiation

    J Mol Biol. 2007 Feb 9;366(1):19-35. Epub 2006 Nov 10. PubMed PMID: 17157871.
    Chen G, Kumar A, Wyman TH, Moran CP Jr

    Spo0A-dependent activation of an extended -10 region promoter in Bacillus subtilis

    J Bacteriol. 2006 Feb;188(4):1411-8. PubMed PMID: 16452424; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC1367231.
    Silvaggi JM, Perkins JB, Losick R

    Genes for small, noncoding RNAs under sporulation control in Bacillus subtilis

    J Bacteriol. 2006 Jan;188(2):532-41. PubMed PMID: 16385044; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC1347314.
    Fujita M, Losick R

    Evidence that entry into sporulation in Bacillus subtilis is governed by a gradual increase in the level and activity of the master regulator Spo0A

    Genes Dev. 2005 Sep 15;19(18):2236-44. PubMed PMID: 16166384; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC1221893.
    Mäder U, Hennig S, Hecker M, Homuth G

    Transcriptional organization and posttranscriptional regulation of the Bacillus subtilis branched-chain amino acid biosynthesis genes

    J Bacteriol. 2004 Apr;186(8):2240-52. PubMed PMID: 15060025; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC412147.
    Seredick SD, Spiegelman GB

    The Bacillus subtilis response regulator Spo0A stimulates sigmaA-dependent transcription prior to the major energetic barrier

    J Biol Chem. 2004 Apr 23;279(17):17397-403. Epub 2004 Feb 18. PubMed PMID: 14976210.
    Kumar A, Brannigan JA, Moran CP Jr

    Alpha-helix E of Spo0A is required for sigmaA- but not for sigmaH-dependent promoter activation in Bacillus subtilis

    J Bacteriol. 2004 Feb;186(4):1078-83. PubMed PMID: 14762002; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC344211.
    Seredick SD, Turner BM, Spiegelman GB

    Assay of transcription modulation by SpoOA of Bacillus subtilis

    Methods Enzymol. 2003;370:312-23. PubMed PMID: 14712656.
    Kumar A, Buckner Starke C, DeZalia M, Moran CP Jr

    Surfaces of Spo0A and RNA polymerase sigma factor A that interact at the spoIIG promoter in Bacillus subtilis

    J Bacteriol. 2004 Jan;186(1):200-6. Erratum in: J Bacteriol. 2004 Apr;186(8):2515. PubMed PMID: 14679239; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC303461.
    Fujita M, Losick R

    The master regulator for entry into sporulation in Bacillus subtilis becomes a cell-specific transcription factor after asymmetric division

    Genes Dev. 2003 May 1;17(9):1166-74. PubMed PMID: 12730135; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC196045.
    Hosoya S, Asai K, Ogasawara N, Takeuchi M, Sato T

    Mutation in yaaT leads to significant inhibition of phosphorelay during sporulation in Bacillus subtilis

    J Bacteriol. 2002 Oct;184(20):5545-53. PubMed PMID: 12270811; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC139598.
    Zhao H, Msadek T, Zapf J, Madhusudan, Hoch JA, Varughese KI

    DNA complexed structure of the key transcription factor initiating development in sporulating bacteria

    Structure. 2002 Aug;10(8):1041-50. PubMed PMID: 12176382.
    Stephenson SJ, Perego M

    Interaction surface of the Spo0A response regulator with the Spo0E phosphatase

    Mol Microbiol. 2002 Jun;44(6):1455-67. PubMed PMID: 12067336.
    Perego M

    A new family of aspartyl phosphate phosphatases targeting the sporulation transcription factor Spo0A of Bacillus subtilis

    Mol Microbiol. 2001 Oct;42(1):133-43. PubMed PMID: 11679073.
    Eymann C, Mittenhuber G, Hecker M

    The stringent response, sigmaH-dependent gene expression and sporulation in Bacillus subtilis

    Mol Gen Genet. 2001 Feb;264(6):913-23. PubMed PMID: 11254139.
    Nanamiya H, Takahashi K, Fujita M, Kawamura F

    Deficiency of the initiation events of sporulation in Bacillus subtilis clpP mutant can be suppressed by a lack of the Spo0E protein phosphatase

    Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2000 Dec 9;279(1):229-33. PubMed PMID: 11112444.
    Jiang M, Shao W, Perego M, Hoch JA

    Multiple histidine kinases regulate entry into stationary phase and sporulation in Bacillus subtilis

    Mol Microbiol. 2000 Nov;38(3):535-42. PubMed PMID: 11069677.
    Fawcett P, Eichenberger P, Losick R, Youngman P

    The transcriptional profile of early to middle sporulation in Bacillus subtilis

    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000 Jul 5;97(14):8063-8. PubMed PMID: 10869437; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC16670.
    Quisel JD, Grossman AD

    Control of sporulation gene expression in Bacillus subtilis by the chromosome partitioning proteins Soj (ParA) and Spo0J (ParB)

    J Bacteriol. 2000 Jun;182(12):3446-51. PubMed PMID: 10852876; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC101922.
    Buckner CM, Moran CP Jr

    A region in Bacillus subtilis sigmaH required for Spo0A-dependent promoter activity

    J Bacteriol. 1998 Sep;180(18):4987-90. PubMed PMID: 9733708; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC107530.
    Cervin MA, Lewis RJ, Brannigan JA, Spiegelman GB

    The Bacillus subtilis regulator SinR inhibits spoIIG promoter transcription in vitro without displacing RNA polymerase

    Nucleic Acids Res. 1998 Aug 15;26(16):3806-12. PubMed PMID: 9685500; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC147748.
    Buckner CM, Schyns G, Moran CP Jr

    A region in the Bacillus subtilis transcription factor Spo0A that is important for spoIIG promoter activation

    J Bacteriol. 1998 Jul;180(14):3578-83. PubMed PMID: 9658000; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC107325.
    Khvorova A, Zhang L, Higgins ML, Piggot PJ

    The spoIIE locus is involved in the Spo0A-dependent switch in the location of FtsZ rings in Bacillus subtilis

    J Bacteriol. 1998 Mar;180(5):1256-60. PubMed PMID: 9495766; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC107015.
    Grimshaw CE, Huang S, Hanstein CG, Strauch MA, Burbulys D, Wang L, Hoch JA, Whiteley JM

    Synergistic kinetic interactions between components of the phosphorelay controlling sporulation in Bacillus subtilis

    Biochemistry. 1998 Feb 3;37(5):1365-75. PubMed PMID: 9477965.
    Schyns G, Buckner CM, Moran CP Jr

    Activation of the Bacillus subtilis spoIIG promoter requires interaction of Spo0A and the sigma subunit of RNA polymerase

    J Bacteriol. 1997 Sep;179(17):5605-8. PubMed PMID: 9287022; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC179438.
    Wray LV Jr, Ferson AE, Fisher SH

    Expression of the Bacillus subtilis ureABC operon is controlled by multiple regulatory factors including CodY, GlnR, TnrA, and Spo0H

    J Bacteriol. 1997 Sep;179(17):5494-501. PubMed PMID: 9287005; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC179421.
    Perego M, Glaser P, Hoch JA

    Aspartyl-phosphate phosphatases deactivate the response regulator components of the sporulation signal transduction system in Bacillus subtilis

    Mol Microbiol. 1996 Mar;19(6):1151-7. Review. PubMed PMID: 8730857.
    Levin PA, Losick R

    Transcription factor Spo0A switches the localization of the cell division protein FtsZ from a medial to a bipolar pattern in Bacillus subtilis

    Genes Dev. 1996 Feb 15;10(4):478-88. PubMed PMID: 8600030.
    Jensen KK, Sharkova E, Duggan MF, Qi Y, Koide A, Hoch JA, Hulett FM

    Bacillus subtilis transcription regulator, Spo0A, decreases alkaline phosphatase levels induced by phosphate starvation

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