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Description: ATPase, centromere-like function involved in forespore chromosome partitioning / negative regulation of sporulation initiation

Name: parA
Locus: BSU40970BsubCyc
pI: 4.0
MW: 27.0 kDa
Protein length: 253 aaBLASTSequence
Gene length: 759 bpBLASTSequenceSequence + Flanks
Function: forespore chromosome partitioning /
negative regulation of sporulation initiation
Product: negative regulator of sporulation initiation
Essential: no
E.C. number:
Synonyms: soj, spo0JA
Databases: SubtiListKEGGUniProtExpression data browser

Categories containing this gene/protein

DNA condensation/ segregation, sporulation/ other, membrane proteins

This gene is a member of the following regulons

Spo0A regulon


  • Coordinates on the chromosome (coding sequence): 4,206,397 -> 4,207,158
  • The protein

    Catalyzed reaction/ biological activity

  • regulates DNA replication initiation by either inhibiting or activating the DNA replication initiator protein DnaA PubMed; regulation of Spo0A expression PubMed
  • Protein family

  • parA family (according to Swiss-Prot)
  • Paralogous protein(s)

    Kinetic information




    Effectors of protein activity

  • ParB inhibits ParA dimerization and concomitant DNA-binding activity by stimulating ParA ATPase activity PubMed
  • Structure


  • polar/ septal at the cell membrane PubMed
  • polar localization depends on the proton motive force PubMed
  • Interactions

  • ParA-ParB PubMed
  • ParA-DnaA PubMed
  • Additional information

    Expression and Regulation


  • parA-parB PubMed
  • Sigma factor


  • repressed under conditions that trigger sporulation (Spo0A) PubMed
  • Regulatory mechanism

  • Spo0A: transcription repression PubMed
  • Additional information

    Biological materials


    Expression vector

    lacZ fusion

    GFP fusion

    two-hybrid system

    FLAG-tag construct


    Labs working on this gene/protein

  • Heath Murray, Centre for Bacterial Cell Biology, Newcastle, UK homepage
  • References


    Jameson KH, Wilkinson AJ

    Control of Initiation of DNA Replication in Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli

    Genes (Basel). 2017 Jan 10;8(1). pii: E22. doi: 10.3390/genes8010022. Review. PubMed PMID: 28075389; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5295017.
    Hajduk IV, Rodrigues CD, Harry EJ

    Connecting the dots of the bacterial cell cycle: Coordinating chromosome replication and segregation with cell division

    Semin Cell Dev Biol. 2016 May;53:2-9. doi: 10.1016/j.semcdb.2015.11.012. Epub 2015 Dec 17. Review. PubMed PMID: 26706151.
    Derouiche A, Shi L, Kalantari A, Mijakovic I

    Evolution and tinkering: what do a protein kinase, a transcriptional regulator and chromosome segregation/cell division proteins have in common

    Curr Genet. 2016 Feb;62(1):67-70. doi: 10.1007/s00294-015-0513-y. Epub 2015 Aug 19. Review. PubMed PMID: 26286503.
    Reyes-Lamothe R, Nicolas E, Sherratt DJ

    Chromosome replication and segregation in bacteria

    Annu Rev Genet. 2012;46:121-43. doi: 10.1146/annurev-genet-110711-155421. Epub 2012 Aug 28. Review. PubMed PMID: 22934648.
    Katayama T, Ozaki S, Keyamura K, Fujimitsu K

    Regulation of the replication cycle: conserved and diverse regulatory systems for DnaA and oriC

    Nat Rev Microbiol. 2010 Mar;8(3):163-70. doi: 10.1038/nrmicro2314. Review. PubMed PMID: 20157337.

    Original publications

    Duan Y, Huey JD, Herman JK

    The DnaA inhibitor SirA acts in the same pathway as Soj (ParA) to facilitate oriC segregation during Bacillus subtilis sporulation

    Mol Microbiol. 2016 Nov;102(3):530-544. doi: 10.1111/mmi.13477. Epub 2016 Aug 25. PubMed PMID: 27489185.
    Kloosterman TG, Lenarcic R, Willis CR, Roberts DM, Hamoen LW, Errington J, Wu LJ

    Complex polar machinery required for proper chromosome segregation in vegetative and sporulating cells of Bacillus subtilis

    Mol Microbiol. 2016 Jul;101(2):333-50. doi: 10.1111/mmi.13393. Epub 2016 May 18. PubMed PMID: 27059541; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4949633.
    Wang X, Le TB, Lajoie BR, Dekker J, Laub MT, Rudner DZ

    Condensin promotes the juxtaposition of DNA flanking its loading site in Bacillus subtilis

    Genes Dev. 2015 Aug 1;29(15):1661-75. doi: 10.1101/gad.265876.115. PubMed PMID: 26253537; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4536313.
    Scholefield G, Errington J, Murray H

    Soj/ParA stalls DNA replication by inhibiting helix formation of the initiator protein DnaA

    EMBO J. 2012 Mar 21;31(6):1542-55. doi: 10.1038/emboj.2012.6. Epub 2012 Jan 27. PubMed PMID: 22286949; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3321191.
    Okumura H, Yoshimura M, Ueki M, Oshima T, Ogasawara N, Ishikawa S

    Regulation of chromosomal replication initiation by oriC-proximal DnaA-box clusters in Bacillus subtilis

    Nucleic Acids Res. 2012 Jan;40(1):220-34. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkr716. Epub 2011 Sep 12. PubMed PMID: 21911367; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3245932.
    Scholefield G, Whiting R, Errington J, Murray H

    Spo0J regulates the oligomeric state of Soj to trigger its switch from an activator to an inhibitor of DNA replication initiation

    Mol Microbiol. 2011 Feb;79(4):1089-100. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2958.2010.07507.x. Epub 2011 Jan 16. PubMed PMID: 21235642.
    Strahl H, Hamoen LW

    Membrane potential is important for bacterial cell division

    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010 Jul 6;107(27):12281-6. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1005485107. Epub 2010 Jun 21. PubMed PMID: 20566861; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2901462.
    Gruber S, Errington J

    Recruitment of condensin to replication origin regions by ParB/SpoOJ promotes chromosome segregation in B

    subtilis. Cell. 2009 May 15;137(4):685-96. doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2009.02.035. PubMed PMID: 19450516.
    Gruber S, Errington J

    Recruitment of condensin to replication origin regions by ParB/SpoOJ promotes chromosome segregation in B

    subtilis. Cell. 2009 May 15;137(4):685-96. doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2009.02.035. PubMed PMID: 19450516.
    Murray H, Errington J

    Dynamic control of the DNA replication initiation protein DnaA by Soj/ParA

    Cell. 2008 Oct 3;135(1):74-84. doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2008.07.044. PubMed PMID: 18854156.
    Real G, Autret S, Harry EJ, Errington J, Henriques AO

    Cell division protein DivIB influences the Spo0J/Soj system of chromosome segregation in Bacillus subtilis

    Mol Microbiol. 2005 Jan;55(2):349-67. PubMed PMID: 15659156.
    Molle V, Fujita M, Jensen ST, Eichenberger P, González-Pastor JE, Liu JS, Losick R

    The Spo0A regulon of Bacillus subtilis

    Mol Microbiol. 2003 Dec;50(5):1683-701. PubMed PMID: 14651647.
    Ogura Y, Ogasawara N, Harry EJ, Moriya S

    Increasing the ratio of Soj to Spo0J promotes replication initiation in Bacillus subtilis

    J Bacteriol. 2003 Nov;185(21):6316-24. PubMed PMID: 14563866; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC219394.
    Wu LJ, Errington J

    RacA and the Soj-Spo0J system combine to effect polar chromosome segregation in sporulating Bacillus subtilis

    Mol Microbiol. 2003 Sep;49(6):1463-75. PubMed PMID: 12950914.
    Autret S, Errington J

    A role for division-site-selection protein MinD in regulation of internucleoid jumping of Soj (ParA) protein in Bacillus subtilis

    Mol Microbiol. 2003 Jan;47(1):159-69. PubMed PMID: 12492861.
    Autret S, Nair R, Errington J

    Genetic analysis of the chromosome segregation protein Spo0J of Bacillus subtilis: evidence for separate domains involved in DNA binding and interactions with Soj protein

    Mol Microbiol. 2001 Aug;41(3):743-55. PubMed PMID: 11532141.
    Quisel JD, Grossman AD

    Control of sporulation gene expression in Bacillus subtilis by the chromosome partitioning proteins Soj (ParA) and Spo0J (ParB)

    J Bacteriol. 2000 Jun;182(12):3446-51. PubMed PMID: 10852876; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC101922.
    Marston AL, Errington J

    Dynamic movement of the ParA-like Soj protein of B

    subtilis and its dual role in nucleoid organization and developmental regulation. Mol Cell. 1999 Nov;4(5):673-82. PubMed PMID: 10619015.
    Cervin MA, Spiegelman GB, Raether B, Ohlsen K, Perego M, Hoch JA

    A negative regulator linking chromosome segregation to developmental transcription in Bacillus subtilis

    Mol Microbiol. 1998 Jul;29(1):85-95. PubMed PMID: 9701805.
    Sharpe ME, Errington J

    The Bacillus subtilis soj-spo0J locus is required for a centromere-like function involved in prespore chromosome partitioning

    Mol Microbiol. 1996 Aug;21(3):501-9. PubMed PMID: 8866474.
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