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Categories containing this gene/protein

transcription, sigma factors and their control, general stress proteins (controlled by SigB)

This gene is a member of the following regulons

CcpA regulon, SigB regulon

The SigB regulon


  • Coordinates on the chromosome (coding sequence): 522,862 -> 523,650
  • The protein

    Catalyzed reaction/ biological activity

    Protein family

  • SigB subfamily (according to Swiss-Prot)
  • Paralogous protein(s)

    Kinetic information




    Effectors of protein activity




  • SigB-RsbW PubMed
  • SigB-RpoB-RpoC
  • Additional information

    Expression and Regulation


  • rsbR-rsbS-rsbT-rsbU-rsbV-rsbW-sigB-rsbX PubMed
  • rsbV-rsbW-sigB-rsbX PubMed
  • Sigma factor

  • rsbR: SigA PubMed
  • rsbV: SigB PubMed
  • Regulation

  • rsbV: induced by stress (SigB) PubMed
  • Regulatory mechanism

    Additional information

    Biological materials


  • QB5344 (cat), available in the Stülke lab
  • 1A675 ( sigB::cat), PubMed, available at BGSC
  • 1A777 ( sigB::cat), PubMed, available at BGSC
  • 1A780 ( sigB::spec), PubMed, available at BGSC
  • Expression vector

    lacZ fusion

    GFP fusion

    two-hybrid system

    FLAG-tag construct


    Labs working on this gene/protein

  • Bill Haldenwang, San Antonio, USA
  • Chet Price, Davis, USA homepage
  • References


    Schumann W

    Regulation of bacterial heat shock stimulons

    Cell Stress Chaperones. 2016 Nov;21(6):959-968. Epub 2016 Aug 12. Review. PubMed PMID: 27518094; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5083672.
    Marles-Wright J, Lewis RJ

    The stressosome: molecular architecture of a signalling hub

    Biochem Soc Trans. 2010 Aug;38(4):928-33. doi: 10.1042/BST0380928. Review. PubMed PMID: 20658979.
    Zuber P

    Management of oxidative stress in Bacillus

    Annu Rev Microbiol. 2009;63:575-97. doi: 10.1146/annurev.micro.091208.073241. Review. PubMed PMID: 19575568.
    Hecker M, Pané-Farré J, Völker U

    SigB-dependent general stress response in Bacillus subtilis and related gram-positive bacteria

    Annu Rev Microbiol. 2007;61:215-36. Review. PubMed PMID: 18035607.
    Hecker M, Völker U

    General stress response of Bacillus subtilis and other bacteria

    Adv Microb Physiol. 2001;44:35-91. Review. PubMed PMID: 11407115.
    Hecker M, Völker U

    Non-specific, general and multiple stress resistance of growth-restricted Bacillus subtilis cells by the expression of the sigmaB regulon

    Mol Microbiol. 1998 Sep;29(5):1129-36. Review. PubMed PMID: 9767581.

    Control of SigB activity by protein-protein interactions

    Igoshin OA, Brody MS, Price CW, Savageau MA

    Distinctive topologies of partner-switching signaling networks correlate with their physiological roles

    J Mol Biol. 2007 Jun 22;369(5):1333-52. Epub 2007 Apr 14. PubMed PMID: 17498739; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2727513.
    Kim TJ, Gaidenko TA, Price CW

    In vivo phosphorylation of partner switching regulators correlates with stress transmission in the environmental signaling pathway of Bacillus subtilis

    J Bacteriol. 2004 Sep;186(18):6124-32. PubMed PMID: 15342582; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC515174.
    Kim TJ, Gaidenko TA, Price CW

    A multicomponent protein complex mediates environmental stress signaling in Bacillus subtilis

    J Mol Biol. 2004 Jul 30;341(1):135-50. PubMed PMID: 15312768.
    Delumeau O, Lewis RJ, Yudkin MD

    Protein-protein interactions that regulate the energy stress activation of sigma(B) in Bacillus subtilis

    J Bacteriol. 2002 Oct;184(20):5583-9. PubMed PMID: 12270815; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC139601.
    Brody MS, Vijay K, Price CW

    Catalytic function of an alpha/beta hydrolase is required for energy stress activation of the sigma(B) transcription factor in Bacillus subtilis

    J Bacteriol. 2001 Nov;183(21):6422-8. PubMed PMID: 11591687; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC100138.
    Eymann C, Hecker M

    Induction of sigma(B)-dependent general stress genes by amino acid starvation in a spo0H mutant of Bacillus subtilis

    FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2001 May 30;199(2):221-7. PubMed PMID: 11377871.
    Dufour A, Voelker U, Voelker A, Haldenwang WG

    Relative levels and fractionation properties of Bacillus subtilis σ(B) and its regulators during balanced growth and stress

    J Bacteriol. 1996 Jul;178(13):3701-9 sigma. PubMed PMID: 8682769; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC232625.
    Benson AK, Haldenwang WG

    Bacillus subtilis sigma B is regulated by a binding protein (RsbW) that blocks its association with core RNA polymerase

    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1993 Mar 15;90(6):2330-4. PubMed PMID: 8460143; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC46080.
    Wise AA, Price CW

    Four additional genes in the sigB operon of Bacillus subtilis that control activity of the general stress factor sigma B in response to environmental signals

    J Bacteriol. 1995 Jan;177(1):123-33. PubMed PMID: 8002610; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC176564.
    Voelker U, Voelker A, Maul B, Hecker M, Dufour A, Haldenwang WG

    Separate mechanisms activate sigma B of Bacillus subtilis in response to environmental and metabolic stresses

    J Bacteriol. 1995 Jul;177(13):3771-80. PubMed PMID: 7601843; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC177095.

    Identification of the SigB regulon

    Nannapaneni P, Hertwig F, Depke M, Hecker M, Mäder U, Völker U, Steil L, van Hijum SA

    Defining the structure of the general stress regulon of Bacillus subtilis using targeted microarray analysis and random forest classification

    Microbiology. 2012 Mar;158(Pt 3):696-707. doi: 10.1099/mic.0.055434-0. Epub 2011 Dec 15. PubMed PMID: 22174379.
    Helmann JD, Wu MF, Kobel PA, Gamo FJ, Wilson M, Morshedi MM, Navre M, Paddon C

    Global transcriptional response of Bacillus subtilis to heat shock

    J Bacteriol. 2001 Dec;183(24):7318-28. PubMed PMID: 11717291; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC95581.
    Petersohn A, Brigulla M, Haas S, Hoheisel JD, Völker U, Hecker M

    Global analysis of the general stress response of Bacillus subtilis

    J Bacteriol. 2001 Oct;183(19):5617-31. PubMed PMID: 11544224; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC95453.
    Price CW, Fawcett P, Cérémonie H, Su N, Murphy CK, Youngman P

    Genome-wide analysis of the general stress response in Bacillus subtilis

    Mol Microbiol. 2001 Aug;41(4):757-74. PubMed PMID: 11532142.
    Petersohn A, Bernhardt J, Gerth U, Höper D, Koburger T, Völker U, Hecker M

    Identification of sigma(B)-dependent genes in Bacillus subtilis using a promoter consensus-directed search and oligonucleotide hybridization

    J Bacteriol. 1999 Sep;181(18):5718-24. PubMed PMID: 10482513; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC94092.
    Petersohn A, Antelmann H, Gerth U, Hecker M

    Identification and transcriptional analysis of new members of the sigmaB regulon in Bacillus subtilis

    Microbiology. 1999 Apr;145 ( Pt 4):869-80. PubMed PMID: 10220166.

    Other publications

    1. Error occurred: cannot get document summary PMID: 39767581 Narula J, Tiwari A, Igoshin OA

    Role of Autoregulation and Relative Synthesis of Operon Partners in Alternative Sigma Factor Networks

    PLoS Comput Biol. 2016 Dec 15;12(12):e1005267. doi: 10.1371/journal.pcbi.1005267. eCollection 2016 Dec. PubMed PMID: 27977677; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5207722.
    Kuo HH, Huang WC, Lin TF, Yeh HY, Liou KM, Chang BY

    The core-independent promoter-specific binding of Bacillus subtilis σB

    FEBS J. 2015 Apr;282(7):1307-18. doi: 10.1111/febs.13222. Epub 2015 Mar 7. PubMed PMID: 25652417.
    Waters SM, Robles-Martínez JA, Nicholson WL

    Exposure of Bacillus subtilis to low pressure (5 kilopascals) induces several global regulons, including those involved in the SigB-mediated general stress response

    Appl Environ Microbiol. 2014 Aug;80(16):4788-94. doi: 10.1128/AEM.00885-14. Epub 2014 May 30. PubMed PMID: 24878601; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4135744.
    Yu AC, Yim AK, Mat WK, Tong AH, Lok S, Xue H, Tsui SK, Wong JT, Chan TF

    Mutations enabling displacement of tryptophan by 4-fluorotryptophan as a canonical amino acid of the genetic code

    Genome Biol Evol. 2014 Mar;6(3):629-41. doi: 10.1093/gbe/evu044. PubMed PMID: 24572018; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3971595.
    Yang CK, Tai PC, Lu CD

    Time-related transcriptome analysis of B

    subtilis 168 during growth with glucose. Curr Microbiol. 2014 Jan;68(1):12-20. doi: 10.1007/s00284-013-0432-4. Epub 2013 Aug 10. PubMed PMID: 23934352.
    Ringus DL, Gaballa A, Helmann JD, Wiedmann M, Boor KJ

    Fluoro-phenyl-styrene-sulfonamide, a novel inhibitor of σB activity, prevents the activation of σB by environmental and energy stresses in Bacillus subtilis

    J Bacteriol. 2013 Jun;195(11):2509-17. doi: 10.1128/JB.00107-13. Epub 2013 Mar 22. PubMed PMID: 23524614; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3676064.
    Young JW, Locke JC, Elowitz MB

    Rate of environmental change determines stress response specificity

    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013 Mar 5;110(10):4140-5. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1213060110. Epub 2013 Feb 13. PubMed PMID: 23407164; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3593889.
    Reder A, Höper D, Gerth U, Hecker M

    Contributions of individual σB-dependent general stress genes to oxidative stress resistance of Bacillus subtilis

    J Bacteriol. 2012 Jul;194(14):3601-10. doi: 10.1128/JB.00528-12. Epub 2012 May 11. PubMed PMID: 22582280; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3393503.
    Liebal UW, Sappa PK, Millat T, Steil L, Homuth G, Völker U, Wolkenhauer O

    Proteolysis of beta-galactosidase following SigmaB activation in Bacillus subtilis

    Mol Biosyst. 2012 Jun;8(6):1806-14. doi: 10.1039/c2mb25031d. Epub 2012 Apr 17. PubMed PMID: 22511268.
    Reder A, Gerth U, Hecker M

    Integration of σB activity into the decision-making process of sporulation initiation in Bacillus subtilis

    J Bacteriol. 2012 Mar;194(5):1065-74. doi: 10.1128/JB.06490-11. Epub 2011 Dec 30. PubMed PMID: 22210769; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3294812.
    Locke JC, Young JW, Fontes M, Hernández Jiménez MJ, Elowitz MB

    Stochastic pulse regulation in bacterial stress response

    Science. 2011 Oct 21;334(6054):366-9. doi: 10.1126/science.1208144. Epub 2011 Oct 6. PubMed PMID: 21979936; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4100694.
    Avila-Pérez M, van der Steen JB, Kort R, Hellingwerf KJ

    Red light activates the sigmaB-mediated general stress response of Bacillus subtilis via the energy branch of the upstream signaling cascade

    J Bacteriol. 2010 Feb;192(3):755-62. doi: 10.1128/JB.00826-09. Epub 2009 Nov 30. PubMed PMID: 19948797; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2812468.
    Reeves A, Gerth U, Völker U, Haldenwang WG

    ClpP modulates the activity of the Bacillus subtilis stress response transcription factor, sigmaB

    J Bacteriol. 2007 Sep;189(17):6168-75. Epub 2007 Jun 22. PubMed PMID: 17586624; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC1951893.
    Suzuki N, Takaya N, Hoshino T, Nakamura A

    Enhancement of a sigma(B)-dependent stress response in Bacillus subtilis by light via YtvA photoreceptor

    J Gen Appl Microbiol. 2007 Apr;53(2):81-8. PubMed PMID: 17575448.
    Höper D, Völker U, Hecker M

    Comprehensive characterization of the contribution of individual SigB-dependent general stress genes to stress resistance of Bacillus subtilis

    J Bacteriol. 2005 Apr;187(8):2810-26. PubMed PMID: 15805528; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC1070366.
    Holtmann G, Brigulla M, Steil L, Schütz A, Barnekow K, Völker U, Bremer E

    RsbV-independent induction of the SigB-dependent general stress regulon of Bacillus subtilis during growth at high temperature

    J Bacteriol. 2004 Sep;186(18):6150-8. PubMed PMID: 15342585; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC515142.
    Carniol K, Kim TJ, Price CW, Losick R

    Insulation of the sigmaF regulatory system in Bacillus subtilis

    J Bacteriol. 2004 Jul;186(13):4390-4. PubMed PMID: 15205443; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC421598.
    Mascher T, Margulis NG, Wang T, Ye RW, Helmann JD

    Cell wall stress responses in Bacillus subtilis: the regulatory network of the bacitracin stimulon

    Mol Microbiol. 2003 Dec;50(5):1591-604. PubMed PMID: 14651641.
    Brigulla M, Hoffmann T, Krisp A, Völker A, Bremer E, Völker U

    Chill induction of the SigB-dependent general stress response in Bacillus subtilis and its contribution to low-temperature adaptation

    J Bacteriol. 2003 Aug;185(15):4305-14. PubMed PMID: 12867438; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC165770.
    Rollenhagen C, Antelmann H, Kirstein J, Delumeau O, Hecker M, Yudkin MD

    Binding of sigma(A) and sigma(B) to core RNA polymerase after environmental stress in Bacillus subtilis

    J Bacteriol. 2003 Jan;185(1):35-40. PubMed PMID: 12486038; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC141833.
    von Blohn C, Kempf B, Kappes RM, Bremer E

    Osmostress response in Bacillus subtilis: characterization of a proline uptake system (OpuE) regulated by high osmolarity and the alternative transcription factor sigma B

    Mol Microbiol. 1997 Jul;25(1):175-87. PubMed PMID: 11902719.
    Petersohn A, Engelmann S, Setlow P, Hecker M

    The katX gene of Bacillus subtilis is under dual control of sigmaB and sigmaF

    Mol Gen Genet. 1999 Aug;262(1):173-9. PubMed PMID: 10503549.
    Völker U, Maul B, Hecker M

    Expression of the sigmaB-dependent general stress regulon confers multiple stress resistance in Bacillus subtilis

    J Bacteriol. 1999 Jul;181(13):3942-8. PubMed PMID: 10383961; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC93883.
    Schweder T, Kolyschkow A, Völker U, Hecker M

    Analysis of the expression and function of the sigmaB-dependent general stress regulon of Bacillus subtilis during slow growth

    Arch Microbiol. 1999 May-Jun;171(6):439-43. PubMed PMID: 10369900.
    Alper S, Dufour A, Garsin DA, Duncan L, Losick R

    Role of adenosine nucleotides in the regulation of a stress-response transcription factor in Bacillus subtilis

    J Mol Biol. 1996 Jul 12;260(2):165-77. PubMed PMID: 8764398.
    Redfield AR, Price CW

    General stress transcription factor sigmaB of Bacillus subtilis is a stable protein

    J Bacteriol. 1996 Jun;178(12):3668-70. PubMed PMID: 8655572; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC178144.
    Benson AK, Haldenwang WG

    Regulation of sigma B levels and activity in Bacillus subtilis

    J Bacteriol. 1993 Apr;175(8):2347-56. PubMed PMID: 8468294; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC204523.
    Benson AK, Haldenwang WG

    The sigma B-dependent promoter of the Bacillus subtilis sigB operon is induced by heat shock

    J Bacteriol. 1993 Apr;175(7):1929-35. PubMed PMID: 8458834; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC204264.
    Boylan SA, Redfield AR, Brody MS, Price CW

    Stress-induced activation of the sigma B transcription factor of Bacillus subtilis

    J Bacteriol. 1993 Dec;175(24):7931-7. PubMed PMID: 8253681; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC206971.
    Ollington JF, Haldenwang WG, Huynh TV, Losick R

    Developmentally regulated transcription in a cloned segment of the Bacillus subtilis chromosome

    J Bacteriol. 1981 Aug;147(2):432-42. PubMed PMID: 6790515; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC216062.
    Haldenwang WG, Losick R

    Novel RNA polymerase sigma factor from Bacillus subtilis

    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1980 Dec;77(12):7000-4. PubMed PMID: 6784117; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC350428.
    Johnson WC, Moran CP Jr, Losick R

    Two RNA polymerase sigma factors from Bacillus subtilis discriminate between overlapping promoters for a developmentally regulated gene

    Nature. 1983 Apr 28;302(5911):800-4. PubMed PMID: 6405278.
    Ray C, Igo M, Shafer W, Losick R, Moran CP Jr

    Suppression of ctc promoter mutations in Bacillus subtilis

    J Bacteriol. 1988 Feb;170(2):900-7. PubMed PMID: 3123466; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC210740.
    Igo M, Lampe M, Ray C, Schafer W, Moran CP Jr, Losick R

    Genetic studies of a secondary RNA polymerase sigma factor in Bacillus subtilis

    J Bacteriol. 1987 Aug;169(8):3464-9. PubMed PMID: 3112122; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC212418.
    Igo MM, Losick R

    Regulation of a promoter that is utilized by minor forms of RNA polymerase holoenzyme in Bacillus subtilis

    J Mol Biol. 1986 Oct 20;191(4):615-24. PubMed PMID: 3100810.
    Duncan ML, Kalman SS, Thomas SM, Price CW

    Gene encoding the 37,000-dalton minor sigma factor of Bacillus subtilis RNA polymerase: isolation, nucleotide sequence, chromosomal locus, and cryptic function

    J Bacteriol. 1987 Feb;169(2):771-8. PubMed PMID: 3027048; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC211846.
    Binnie C, Lampe M, Losick R

    Gene encoding the sigma 37 species of RNA polymerase sigma factor from Bacillus subtilis

    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1986 Aug;83(16):5943-7. PubMed PMID: 3016731; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC386413.
    Haldenwang WG, Losick R

    A modified RNA polymerase transcribes a cloned gene under sporulation control in Bacillus subtilis

    Nature. 1979 Nov 15;282(5736):256-60. PubMed PMID: 116131.
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