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Categories containing this gene/protein

protein modification, transcription factors and their control, phosphorelay, biofilm formation, membrane proteins, phosphoproteins

This gene is a member of the following regulons

Spo0A regulon


  • Coordinates on the chromosome (coding sequence): 1,518,333 -> 1,519,619
  • Phenotypes of a mutant

  • defective in biofilm formation PubMed
  • The protein

    Catalyzed reaction/ biological activity

  • autophosphorylation, phosphorylation of Spo0F as part of the phosphorelay, but also direct phosphorylation of Spo0A PubMed
  • mainly active in the younger, outer regions of a colony (with KinD) PubMed
  • phosphorylates Spo0A in response to the presence of surfactin PubMed, this has been refuted PubMed
  • required for initiation of sliding together with KinB PubMed
  • Protein family

    Paralogous protein(s)

    Kinetic information


  • two transmembrane segments
  • PAS domain
  • C-terminal histidine phosphotransferase domain
  • Modification

  • autophosphorylation on a His residue
  • Cofactors

    Effectors of protein activity

  • activity is triggered by potassium leakage PubMed, this has been refuted PubMed
  • activity is triggered by polyisoprenoid lipids formed by YisP PubMed
  • activity is stimulated by the interaction with FloT PubMed
  • Structure


  • cell membrane (Heterogeneous) PubMed
  • co-localizes with FloT in discrete foci in the membrane PubMed
  • the localization of KinC in membrane microdomains depends on FloA and FloT PubMed, this has been refuted PubMed
  • Interactions

  • KinC-Spo0A PubMed
  • KinC-Spo0F
  • FloT-KinC to stimulate KinC dimerization and activity PubMed
  • Additional information

    Expression and Regulation


  • kinC-ykqA-ktrC PubMed
  • Sigma factor

  • SigA PubMed
  • Regulation

  • expressed under conditions that trigger sporulation (Spo0A) PubMed
  • Regulatory mechanism

  • Spo0A: transcription activation PubMed
  • Additional information

    Biological materials


  • 1A632 ( kinC::erm), PubMed, available at BGSC
  • BAL393 (kinC::spc)PubMed
  • Expression vector

    lacZ fusion

    GFP fusion

    two-hybrid system

    FLAG-tag construct


    Labs working on this gene/protein



    López D

    Connection of KinC to flotillins and potassium leakage in Bacillus subtilis

    Microbiology. 2015 Jun;161(6):1180-1. doi: 10.1099/mic.0.000089. Epub 2015 May 1. PubMed PMID: 25934647.
    Bramkamp M, Lopez D

    Exploring the existence of lipid rafts in bacteria

    Microbiol Mol Biol Rev. 2015 Mar;79(1):81-100. doi: 10.1128/MMBR.00036-14. PubMed PMID: 25652542; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4342107.

    Original publications

    Schneider J, Mielich-Süss B, Böhme R, Lopez D

    In vivo characterization of the scaffold activity of flotillin on the membrane kinase KinC of Bacillus subtilis

    Microbiology. 2015 Sep;161(9):1871-87. doi: 10.1099/mic.0.000137. Epub 2015 Jul 14. PubMed PMID: 26297017; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4591472.
    Grau RR, de Oña P, Kunert M, Leñini C, Gallegos-Monterrosa R, Mhatre E, Vileta D, Donato V, Hölscher T, Boland W, Kuipers OP, Kovács ÁT

    A Duo of Potassium-Responsive Histidine Kinases Govern the Multicellular Destiny of Bacillus subtilis

    MBio. 2015 Jul 7;6(4):e00581. doi: 10.1128/mBio.00581-15. PubMed PMID: 26152584; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4495169.
    Grau RR, de Oña P, Kunert M, Leñini C, Gallegos-Monterrosa R, Mhatre E, Vileta D, Donato V, Hölscher T, Boland W, Kuipers OP, Kovács ÁT

    A Duo of Potassium-Responsive Histidine Kinases Govern the Multicellular Destiny of Bacillus subtilis

    MBio. 2015 Jul 7;6(4):e00581. doi: 10.1128/mBio.00581-15. PubMed PMID: 26152584; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4495169.
    Devi SN, Vishnoi M, Kiehler B, Haggett L, Fujita M

    In vivo functional characterization of the transmembrane histidine kinase KinC in Bacillus subtilis

    Microbiology. 2015 May;161(Pt 5):1092-104. doi: 10.1099/mic.0.000054. Epub 2015 Feb 20. PubMed PMID: 25701730.
    Vishnoi M, Narula J, Devi SN, Dao HA, Igoshin OA, Fujita M

    Triggering sporulation in Bacillus subtilis with artificial two-component systems reveals the importance of proper Spo0A activation dynamics

    Mol Microbiol. 2013 Oct;90(1):181-94. doi: 10.1111/mmi.12357. Epub 2013 Aug 23. PubMed PMID: 23927765.
    Yepes A, Schneider J, Mielich B, Koch G, García-Betancur JC, Ramamurthi KS, Vlamakis H, López D

    The biofilm formation defect of a Bacillus subtilis flotillin-defective mutant involves the protease FtsH

    Mol Microbiol. 2012 Oct;86(2):457-71. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2958.2012.08205.x. Epub 2012 Aug 24. PubMed PMID: 22882210; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3988463.
    McLoon AL, Kolodkin-Gal I, Rubinstein SM, Kolter R, Losick R

    Spatial regulation of histidine kinases governing biofilm formation in Bacillus subtilis

    J Bacteriol. 2011 Feb;193(3):679-85. doi: 10.1128/JB.01186-10. Epub 2010 Nov 19. PubMed PMID: 21097618; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3021239.
    Shemesh M, Kolter R, Losick R

    The biocide chlorine dioxide stimulates biofilm formation in Bacillus subtilis by activation of the histidine kinase KinC

    J Bacteriol. 2010 Dec;192(24):6352-6. doi: 10.1128/JB.01025-10. Epub 2010 Oct 22. PubMed PMID: 20971918; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3008516.
    López D, Gontang EA, Kolter R

    Potassium sensing histidine kinase in Bacillus subtilis

    Methods Enzymol. 2010;471:229-51. doi: 10.1016/S0076-6879(10)71013-2. Epub 2010 Mar 1. PubMed PMID: 20946851; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2956595.
    López D, Kolter R

    Functional microdomains in bacterial membranes

    Genes Dev. 2010 Sep 1;24(17):1893-902. doi: 10.1101/gad.1945010. Epub 2010 Aug 16. PubMed PMID: 20713508; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2932971.
    López D, Fischbach MA, Chu F, Losick R, Kolter R

    Structurally diverse natural products that cause potassium leakage trigger multicellularity in Bacillus subtilis

    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009 Jan 6;106(1):280-5. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0810940106. Epub 2008 Dec 29. PubMed PMID: 19114652; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2629187.
    Meile JC, Wu LJ, Ehrlich SD, Errington J, Noirot P

    Systematic localisation of proteins fused to the green fluorescent protein in Bacillus subtilis: identification of new proteins at the DNA replication factory

    Proteomics. 2006 Apr;6(7):2135-46. PubMed PMID: 16479537.
    Fujita M, Losick R

    Evidence that entry into sporulation in Bacillus subtilis is governed by a gradual increase in the level and activity of the master regulator Spo0A

    Genes Dev. 2005 Sep 15;19(18):2236-44. PubMed PMID: 16166384; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC1221893.
    Jiang M, Shao W, Perego M, Hoch JA

    Multiple histidine kinases regulate entry into stationary phase and sporulation in Bacillus subtilis

    Mol Microbiol. 2000 Nov;38(3):535-42. PubMed PMID: 11069677.
    Fabret C, Feher VA, Hoch JA

    Two-component signal transduction in Bacillus subtilis: how one organism sees its world

    J Bacteriol. 1999 Apr;181(7):1975-83. Review. PubMed PMID: 10094672; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC93607.
    Kobayashi K, Shoji K, Shimizu T, Nakano K, Sato T, Kobayashi Y

    Analysis of a suppressor mutation ssb (kinC) of sur0B20 (spo0A) mutation in Bacillus subtilis reveals that kinC encodes a histidine protein kinase

    J Bacteriol. 1995 Jan;177(1):176-82. PubMed PMID: 8002615; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC176570.
    LeDeaux JR, Grossman AD

    Isolation and characterization of kinC, a gene that encodes a sensor kinase homologous to the sporulation sensor kinases KinA and KinB in Bacillus subtilis

    J Bacteriol. 1995 Jan;177(1):166-75. PubMed PMID: 8002614; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC176569.
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