SubtiBank SubtiBank

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Categories containing this gene/protein

protein modification, transcription factors and their control, phosphorelay, phosphoproteins

This gene is a member of the following regulons

SigH regulon, Spo0A regulon, stringent response


  • Coordinates on the chromosome (coding sequence): 1,470,026 -> 1,471,846
  • The protein

    Catalyzed reaction/ biological activity

  • autophosphorylation, phosphorylation of Spo0F
  • mainly active in the older, inner regions of a colony (with KinB) PubMed
  • Protein family

    Paralogous protein(s)

    Kinetic information


  • three tandem PAS domains in the N-terminal region of KinA, the second PAS domain is the major N-terminal determinant of KinA dimerization PubMed
  • the first PAS domain is required for NAD( ) binding PubMed
  • C-terminal histidine phosphotransferase domain
  • Modification

  • autophosphorylation on a His residue
  • Cofactors

    Effectors of protein activity

  • interaction with KipI or Sda inhibits autophosphorylation of KinA PubMed
  • autophosphorylation is inhibited by SivA and BslA PubMed
  • activated by interaction with NAD( ) that indicated poor respiratory activity of the cell PubMed, this has been falsified PubMed
  • Structure

  • 2VLG (PAS domain)
  • Localization

  • cytoplasm
  • Interactions

  • forms tetramers PubMed
  • KinA-KipI PubMed
  • KinA-Sda PubMed
  • Spo0F-KinA
  • Additional information

    Expression and Regulation


  • kinA PubMed
  • Sigma factor

  • SigH PubMed
  • Regulation

  • expressed under conditions that trigger sporulation (Spo0A) PubMed
  • induced upon addition of decoyinine (positive stringent response) PubMed
  • Regulatory mechanism

  • Spo0A: transcription activation PubMed
  • Additional information

  • promoter-up mutations or high artificial expression that render kinA independent from SigH, allow sporulation at high salinity PubMed
  • Biological materials


    Expression vector

    lacZ fusion

    GFP fusion

    two-hybrid system

    FLAG-tag construct


    Labs working on this gene/protein



    Gross L(1).

    Built-in timer delays differentiation.

    PLoS Biol. 2012 Jan;10(1):e1001254. doi: 10.1371/journal.pbio.1001254. Epub 2012 Jan 31.Conflict of interest statement: The author has declared that no competing interests exist.

    Original Publications

    Kiehler B, Haggett L, Fujita M

    The PAS domains of the major sporulation kinase in Bacillus subtilis play a role in tetramer formation that is essential for the autokinase activity

    Microbiologyopen. 2017 Apr 27. doi: 10.1002/mbo3.481. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 28449380.
    Narula J, Kuchina A, Zhang F, Fujita M, Süel GM, Igoshin OA

    Slowdown of growth controls cellular differentiation

    Mol Syst Biol. 2016 May 23;12(5):871. doi: 10.15252/msb.20156691. PubMed PMID: 27216630; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5289222.
    Widderich N, Rodrigues CD, Commichau FM, Fischer KE, Ramirez-Guadiana FH, Rudner DZ, Bremer E

    Salt-sensitivity of σ(H) and Spo0A prevents sporulation of Bacillus subtilis at high osmolarity avoiding death during cellular differentiation

    Mol Microbiol. 2016 Apr;100(1):108-24. doi: 10.1111/mmi.13304. Epub 2016 Jan 18. PubMed PMID: 26712348; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4992981.
    Ababneh QO, Tindall AJ, Herman JK

    A Secreted Factor Coordinates Environmental Quality with Bacillus Development

    PLoS One. 2015 Dec 11;10(12):e0144168. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0144168. eCollection 2015. PubMed PMID: 26657919; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4689505.
    Narula J, Kuchina A, Lee DY, Fujita M, Süel GM, Igoshin OA

    Chromosomal Arrangement of Phosphorelay Genes Couples Sporulation and DNA Replication

    Cell. 2015 Jul 16;162(2):328-37. doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2015.06.012. Epub 2015 Jul 9. PubMed PMID: 26165942; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4506695.
    Devi SN, Kiehler B, Haggett L, Fujita M

    Evidence that Autophosphorylation of the Major Sporulation Kinase in Bacillus subtilis Is Able To Occur in trans

    J Bacteriol. 2015 Aug;197(16):2675-84. doi: 10.1128/JB.00257-15. Epub 2015 Jun 8. PubMed PMID: 26055117; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4507334.
    Boguslawski KM, Hill PA, Griffith KL

    Novel mechanisms of controlling the activities of the transcription factors Spo0A and ComA by the plasmid-encoded quorum sensing regulators Rap60-Phr60 in Bacillus subtilis

    Mol Microbiol. 2015 Apr;96(2):325-48. doi: 10.1111/mmi.12939. Epub 2015 Feb 18. PubMed PMID: 25598361; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4701059.
    Kolodkin-Gal I, Elsholz AK, Muth C, Girguis PR, Kolter R, Losick R

    Respiration control of multicellularity in Bacillus subtilis by a complex of the cytochrome chain with a membrane-embedded histidine kinase

    Genes Dev. 2013 Apr 15;27(8):887-99. doi: 10.1101/gad.215244.113. Epub 2013 Apr 18. PubMed PMID: 23599347; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3650226.
    Winnen B, Anderson E, Cole JL, King GF, Rowland SL

    Role of the PAS sensor domains in the Bacillus subtilis sporulation kinase KinA

    J Bacteriol. 2013 May;195(10):2349-58. doi: 10.1128/JB.00096-13. Epub 2013 Mar 15. PubMed PMID: 23504013; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3650535.
    Tojo S, Hirooka K, Fujita Y

    Expression of kinA and kinB of Bacillus subtilis, necessary for sporulation initiation, is under positive stringent transcription control

    J Bacteriol. 2013 Apr;195(8):1656-65. doi: 10.1128/JB.02131-12. Epub 2013 Feb 1. PubMed PMID: 23378509; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3624560.
    Garti-Levi S, Eswara A, Smith Y, Fujita M, Ben-Yehuda S

    Novel modulators controlling entry into sporulation in Bacillus subtilis

    J Bacteriol. 2013 Apr;195(7):1475-83. doi: 10.1128/JB.02160-12. Epub 2013 Jan 18. PubMed PMID: 23335417; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3624523.
    Narula J, Devi SN, Fujita M, Igoshin OA

    Ultrasensitivity of the Bacillus subtilis sporulation decision

    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012 Dec 11;109(50):E3513-22. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1213974109. Epub 2012 Nov 19. PubMed PMID: 23169620; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3528541.
    Dago AE, Schug A, Procaccini A, Hoch JA, Weigt M, Szurmant H

    Structural basis of histidine kinase autophosphorylation deduced by integrating genomics, molecular dynamics, and mutagenesis

    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012 Jun 26;109(26):E1733-42. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1201301109. Epub 2012 Jun 5. PubMed PMID: 22670053; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3387055.
    Levine JH, Fontes ME, Dworkin J, Elowitz MB

    Pulsed feedback defers cellular differentiation

    PLoS Biol. 2012 Jan;10(1):e1001252. doi: 10.1371/journal.pbio.1001252. Epub 2012 Jan 31. PubMed PMID: 22303282; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3269414.
    Eswaramoorthy P, Dravis A, Devi SN, Vishnoi M, Dao HA, Fujita M

    Expression level of a chimeric kinase governs entry into sporulation in Bacillus subtilis

    J Bacteriol. 2011 Nov;193(22):6113-22. doi: 10.1128/JB.05920-11. Epub 2011 Sep 16. PubMed PMID: 21926229; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3209216.
    McLoon AL, Kolodkin-Gal I, Rubinstein SM, Kolter R, Losick R

    Spatial regulation of histidine kinases governing biofilm formation in Bacillus subtilis

    J Bacteriol. 2011 Feb;193(3):679-85. doi: 10.1128/JB.01186-10. Epub 2010 Nov 19. PubMed PMID: 21097618; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3021239.
    Eswaramoorthy P, Duan D, Dinh J, Dravis A, Devi SN, Fujita M

    The threshold level of the sensor histidine kinase KinA governs entry into sporulation in Bacillus subtilis

    J Bacteriol. 2010 Aug;192(15):3870-82. doi: 10.1128/JB.00466-10. Epub 2010 May 28. PubMed PMID: 20511506; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2916370.
    Eswaramoorthy P, Dinh J, Duan D, Igoshin OA, Fujita M

    Single-cell measurement of the levels and distributions of the phosphorelay components in a population of sporulating Bacillus subtilis cells

    Microbiology. 2010 Aug;156(Pt 8):2294-304. doi: 10.1099/mic.0.038497-0. Epub 2010 Apr 22. PubMed PMID: 20413551.
    Eswaramoorthy P, Fujita M

    Systematic domain deletion analysis of the major sporulation kinase in Bacillus subtilis

    J Bacteriol. 2010 Mar;192(6):1744-8. doi: 10.1128/JB.01481-09. Epub 2010 Jan 15. PubMed PMID: 20081035; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2832533.
    Kobayashi K, Kuwana R, Takamatsu H

    kinA mRNA is missing a stop codon in the undomesticated Bacillus subtilis strain ATCC 6051

    Microbiology. 2008 Jan;154(Pt 1):54-63. doi: 10.1099/mic.0.2007/011783-0. PubMed PMID: 18174125.
    Whitten AE, Jacques DA, Hammouda B, Hanley T, King GF, Guss JM, Trewhella J, Langley DB

    The structure of the KinA-Sda complex suggests an allosteric mechanism of histidine kinase inhibition

    J Mol Biol. 2007 Apr 27;368(2):407-20. Epub 2007 Feb 3. PubMed PMID: 17350039.
    Fujita M, Losick R

    Evidence that entry into sporulation in Bacillus subtilis is governed by a gradual increase in the level and activity of the master regulator Spo0A

    Genes Dev. 2005 Sep 15;19(18):2236-44. PubMed PMID: 16166384; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC1221893.
    Rowland SL, Burkholder WF, Cunningham KA, Maciejewski MW, Grossman AD, King GF

    Structure and mechanism of action of Sda, an inhibitor of the histidine kinases that regulate initiation of sporulation in Bacillus subtilis

    Mol Cell. 2004 Mar 12;13(5):689-701. PubMed PMID: 15023339.
    Stephenson SJ, Perego M

    Interaction surface of the Spo0A response regulator with the Spo0E phosphatase

    Mol Microbiol. 2002 Jun;44(6):1455-67. PubMed PMID: 12067336.
    Stephenson K, Hoch JA

    PAS-A domain of phosphorelay sensor kinase A: a catalytic ATP-binding domain involved in the initiation of development in Bacillus subtilis

    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001 Dec 18;98(26):15251-6. Epub 2001 Dec 4. PubMed PMID: 11734624; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC65015.
    Wang L, Fabret C, Kanamaru K, Stephenson K, Dartois V, Perego M, Hoch JA

    Dissection of the functional and structural domains of phosphorelay histidine kinase A of Bacillus subtilis

    J Bacteriol. 2001 May;183(9):2795-802. PubMed PMID: 11292798; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC99495.
    Jiang M, Shao W, Perego M, Hoch JA

    Multiple histidine kinases regulate entry into stationary phase and sporulation in Bacillus subtilis

    Mol Microbiol. 2000 Nov;38(3):535-42. PubMed PMID: 11069677.
    Fabret C, Feher VA, Hoch JA

    Two-component signal transduction in Bacillus subtilis: how one organism sees its world

    J Bacteriol. 1999 Apr;181(7):1975-83. Review. PubMed PMID: 10094672; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC93607.
    Fujita M, Sadaie Y

    Feedback loops involving Spo0A and AbrB in in vitro transcription of the genes involved in the initiation of sporulation in Bacillus subtilis

    J Biochem. 1998 Jul;124(1):98-104. PubMed PMID: 9644251.
    Grimshaw CE, Huang S, Hanstein CG, Strauch MA, Burbulys D, Wang L, Hoch JA, Whiteley JM

    Synergistic kinetic interactions between components of the phosphorelay controlling sporulation in Bacillus subtilis

    Biochemistry. 1998 Feb 3;37(5):1365-75. PubMed PMID: 9477965.
    Wang L, Grau R, Perego M, Hoch JA

    A novel histidine kinase inhibitor regulating development in Bacillus subtilis

    Genes Dev. 1997 Oct 1;11(19):2569-79. PubMed PMID: 9334321; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC316564.
    Tzeng YL, Hoch JA

    Molecular recognition in signal transduction: the interaction surfaces of the Spo0F response regulator with its cognate phosphorelay proteins revealed by alanine scanning mutagenesis

    J Mol Biol. 1997 Sep 19;272(2):200-12. PubMed PMID: 9299348.
    Perego M, Cole SP, Burbulys D, Trach K, Hoch JA

    Characterization of the gene for a protein kinase which phosphorylates the sporulation-regulatory proteins Spo0A and Spo0F of Bacillus subtilis

    J Bacteriol. 1989 Nov;171(11):6187-96. PubMed PMID: 2509430; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC210488.
    Burbulys D, Trach KA, Hoch JA

    Initiation of sporulation in B

    subtilis is controlled by a multicomponent phosphorelay. Cell. 1991 Feb 8;64(3):545-52. PubMed PMID: 1846779.
    Predich M, Nair G, Smith I

    Bacillus subtilis early sporulation genes kinA, spo0F, and spo0A are transcribed by the RNA polymerase containing sigma H

    J Bacteriol. 1992 May;174(9):2771-8. PubMed PMID: 1569009; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC205927.
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