SubtiBank SubtiBank

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Categories containing this gene/protein

carbon core metabolism, essential genes, membrane proteins, phosphoproteins, universally conserved proteins, most abundant proteins

This gene is a member of the following regulons

CggR regulon


  • Coordinates on the chromosome (coding sequence): 3,476,555 -> 3,477,847
  • Phenotypes of a mutant

  • no growth on LB, requires glucose and malate PubMed
  • essential according to Kobayashi et al. on LB PubMed
  • The protein

    Catalyzed reaction/ biological activity

  • 2-phospho-D-glycerate = phosphoenolpyruvate H2O (according to Swiss-Prot) 2-phospho-D-glycerate = phosphoenolpyruvate H(2)O
  • Protein family

  • enolase family (according to Swiss-Prot)
  • Paralogous protein(s)

    Kinetic information

  • reversible Michaelis-Menten PubMed
  • Domains

  • substrate binding domain (366–369)
  • Modification

  • phosphorylation on Thr-141 AND Ser-259 AND Tyr-281 AND Ser-325 PubMed
  • Cofactors

  • Mg2
  • Effectors of protein activity

  • Inhibited by EDTA PubMed
  • Structure

  • 4A3R PubMed
  • 1W6T (from Streptococcus pneumoniae) PubMed
  • Localization

  • cytoplasm PubMed
  • membrane associated PubMed
  • exported, this requires a long, unbent α-helix (from A108 to L126) PubMed
  • Interactions

  • forms octamers PubMed
  • part of the RNA degradosome PubMed
  • Eno-PfkA PubMed, K(D) of the interaction: 40 nM PubMed
  • Eno-Rny PubMed, K(D) of the interaction: 100 nM PubMed
  • Eno-CshA PubMed
  • Additional information

  • Enolase is a moonlighting protein. PubMed
  • There are indications that this enzyme is an octamer PubMed
  • universally conserved protein
  • extensive information on the structure and enzymatic properties of Eno can be found at Proteopedia
  • Expression and Regulation


  • cggR-gapA-pgk-tpiA-pgm-eno PubMed
  • pgk-tpiA-pgm-eno PubMed
  • Sigma factor

  • SigA PubMed
  • Regulation

  • expression activated by glucose (3.3 fold) PubMed
  • cggR: induced by glycolytic substrates CggR PubMed
  • pgk: constitutive PubMed
  • Regulatory mechanism

  • transcription repression by CggR PubMed
  • Additional information

  • belongs to the 100 most abundant proteins PubMed
  • Biological materials


  • GP594 (eno::cat), available in Jörg Stülke's lab, PubMed
  • GP599 (eno::erm), available in Jörg Stülke's lab, PubMed
  • GP698 (eno-pgm::cat), available in Jörg Stülke's lab, PubMed
  • Expression vector

  • pGP1426 (expression of eno in B. subtilis, in pBQ200), available in Jörg Stülke's lab
  • pGP1500 (expression of pgm and eno in B. subtilis, in pBQ200), available in Jörg Stülke's lab
  • pGP563 (N-terminal His-tag, purification from E. coli, in pWH844), available in Jörg Stülke's lab
  • pGP1276 (N-terminal Strep-tag, purification from E. coli, in pGP172), available in Jörg Stülke's lab
  • pGP93 (N-terminal Strep-tag, purification from B. subtilis, for SPINE, in pGP380), available in Jörg Stülke's lab
  • GP1215 (chromosomal eno-Strep fusion, spc), purification from B. subtilis, for SPINE, available in Jörg Stülke's lab
  • lacZ fusion

  • see pgk
  • GFP fusion

  • pHT315-yfp-eno, available in Mijakovic lab
  • GP1700 (in pBP43), expression of eno-GFP::spc under the native promoter, available in Jörg Stülke's lab PubMed
  • two-hybrid system

  • B. pertussis adenylate cyclase-based bacterial two hybrid system (BACTH), available in Jörg Stülke's lab
  • FLAG-tag construct

  • GP1214 (spc, based on pGP1331), available in Jörg Stülke's lab
  • Antibody

  • available in Jörg Stülke's lab
  • Labs working on this gene/protein

  • Jörg Stülke, University of Göttingen, Germany Homepage
  • References


    Reed GH(1), Poyner RR, Larsen TM, Wedekind JE, Rayment I.

    Structural and mechanistic studies of enolase.

    Curr Opin Struct Biol. 1996 Dec;6(6):736-43.

    Subcellular localization of enolase

    Cascante-Estepa N, Gunka K, Stülke J

    Localization of Components of the RNA-Degrading Machine in Bacillus subtilis

    Front Microbiol. 2016 Sep 21;7:1492. eCollection 2016. PubMed PMID: 27708634; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5030255.
    Yang CK, Zhang XZ, Lu CD, Tai PC

    An internal hydrophobic helical domain of Bacillus subtilis enolase is essential but not sufficient as a non-cleavable signal for its secretion

    Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2014 Apr 18;446(4):901-5. doi: 10.1016/j.bbrc.2014.03.032. Epub 2014 Mar 15. PubMed PMID: 24642254; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4036616.
    Yang CK, Ewis HE, Zhang X, Lu CD, Hu HJ, Pan Y, Abdelal AT, Tai PC

    Nonclassical protein secretion by Bacillus subtilis in the stationary phase is not due to cell lysis

    J Bacteriol. 2011 Oct;193(20):5607-15. doi: 10.1128/JB.05897-11. Epub 2011 Aug 19. PubMed PMID: 21856851; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3187209.
    Jers C, Pedersen MM, Paspaliari DK, Schütz W, Johnsson C, Soufi B, Macek B, Jensen PR, Mijakovic I

    Bacillus subtilis BY-kinase PtkA controls enzyme activity and localization of its protein substrates

    Mol Microbiol. 2010 Jul;77(2):287-99. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2958.2010.07227.x. Epub 2010 May 24. PubMed PMID: 20497499.
    Hahne H, Wolff S, Hecker M, Becher D

    From complementarity to comprehensiveness--targeting the membrane proteome of growing Bacillus subtilis by divergent approaches

    Proteomics. 2008 Oct;8(19):4123-36. doi: 10.1002/pmic.200800258. PubMed PMID: 18763711.
    Meile JC, Wu LJ, Ehrlich SD, Errington J, Noirot P

    Systematic localisation of proteins fused to the green fluorescent protein in Bacillus subtilis: identification of new proteins at the DNA replication factory

    Proteomics. 2006 Apr;6(7):2135-46. PubMed PMID: 16479537.
    Boël G, Pichereau V, Mijakovic I, Mazé A, Poncet S, Gillet S, Giard JC, Hartke A, Auffray Y, Deutscher J

    Is 2-phosphoglycerate-dependent automodification of bacterial enolases implicated in their export

    J Mol Biol. 2004 Mar 19;337(2):485-96. PubMed PMID: 15003462.

    Other original publications

    Commichau FM, Pietack N, Stülke J

    Essential genes in Bacillus subtilis: a re-evaluation after ten years

    Mol Biosyst. 2013 Jun;9(6):1068-75. doi: 10.1039/c3mb25595f. Epub 2013 Feb 18. Review. PubMed PMID: 23420519.
    Newman JA, Hewitt L, Rodrigues C, Solovyova AS, Harwood CR, Lewis RJ

    Dissection of the network of interactions that links RNA processing with glycolysis in the Bacillus subtilis degradosome

    J Mol Biol. 2012 Feb 10;416(1):121-36. doi: 10.1016/j.jmb.2011.12.024. Epub 2011 Dec 16. PubMed PMID: 22198292.
    Lehnik-Habrink M, Newman J, Rothe FM, Solovyova AS, Rodrigues C, Herzberg C, Commichau FM, Lewis RJ, Stülke J

    RNase Y in Bacillus subtilis: a Natively disordered protein that is the functional equivalent of RNase E from Escherichia coli

    J Bacteriol. 2011 Oct;193(19):5431-41. doi: 10.1128/JB.05500-11. Epub 2011 Jul 29. PubMed PMID: 21803996; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3187381.
    Lehnik-Habrink M, Pförtner H, Rempeters L, Pietack N, Herzberg C, Stülke J

    The RNA degradosome in Bacillus subtilis: identification of CshA as the major RNA helicase in the multiprotein complex

    Mol Microbiol. 2010 Aug;77(4):958-71. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2958.2010.07264.x. Epub 2010 Jun 21. PubMed PMID: 20572937.
    Commichau FM, Rothe FM, Herzberg C, Wagner E, Hellwig D, Lehnik-Habrink M, Hammer E, Völker U, Stülke J

    Novel activities of glycolytic enzymes in Bacillus subtilis: interactions with essential proteins involved in mRNA processing

    Mol Cell Proteomics. 2009 Jun;8(6):1350-60. doi: 10.1074/mcp.M800546-MCP200. Epub 2009 Feb 3. PubMed PMID: 19193632; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2690492.
    Eymann C, Becher D, Bernhardt J, Gronau K, Klutzny A, Hecker M

    Dynamics of protein phosphorylation on Ser/Thr/Tyr in Bacillus subtilis

    Proteomics. 2007 Oct;7(19):3509-26. PubMed PMID: 17726680.
    Jannière L, Canceill D, Suski C, Kanga S, Dalmais B, Lestini R, Monnier AF, Chapuis J, Bolotin A, Titok M, Le Chatelier E, Ehrlich SD

    Genetic evidence for a link between glycolysis and DNA replication

    PLoS One. 2007 May 16;2(5):e447. PubMed PMID: 17505547; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC1866360.
    Macek B, Mijakovic I, Olsen JV, Gnad F, Kumar C, Jensen PR, Mann M

    The serine/threonine/tyrosine phosphoproteome of the model bacterium Bacillus subtilis

    Mol Cell Proteomics. 2007 Apr;6(4):697-707. Epub 2007 Jan 10. PubMed PMID: 17218307.
    Ehinger S, Schubert WD, Bergmann S, Hammerschmidt S, Heinz DW

    Plasmin(ogen)-binding alpha-enolase from Streptococcus pneumoniae: crystal structure and evaluation of plasmin(ogen)-binding sites

    J Mol Biol. 2004 Oct 29;343(4):997-1005. PubMed PMID: 15476816.
    Eymann C, Dreisbach A, Albrecht D, Bernhardt J, Becher D, Gentner S, Tam le T, Büttner K, Buurman G, Scharf C, Venz S, Völker U, Hecker M

    A comprehensive proteome map of growing Bacillus subtilis cells

    Proteomics. 2004 Oct;4(10):2849-76. PubMed PMID: 15378759.
    Blencke HM, Homuth G, Ludwig H, Mäder U, Hecker M, Stülke J

    Transcriptional profiling of gene expression in response to glucose in Bacillus subtilis: regulation of the central metabolic pathways

    Metab Eng. 2003 Apr;5(2):133-49. PubMed PMID: 12850135.
    Ludwig H, Homuth G, Schmalisch M, Dyka FM, Hecker M, Stülke J

    Transcription of glycolytic genes and operons in Bacillus subtilis: evidence for the presence of multiple levels of control of the gapA operon

    Mol Microbiol. 2001 Jul;41(2):409-22. PubMed PMID: 11489127.
    Brown CK, Kuhlman PL, Mattingly S, Slates K, Calie PJ, Farrar WW

    A model of the quaternary structure of enolases, based on structural and evolutionary analysis of the octameric enolase from Bacillus subtilis

    J Protein Chem. 1998 Nov;17(8):855-66. PubMed PMID: 9988532.
    Leyva-Vazquez MA, Setlow P

    Cloning and nucleotide sequences of the genes encoding triose phosphate isomerase, phosphoglycerate mutase, and enolase from Bacillus subtilis

    J Bacteriol. 1994 Jul;176(13):3903-10. PubMed PMID: 8021172; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC205587.
    Singh RP, Setlow P

    Enolase from spores and cells of Bacillus megaterium: two-step purification of the enzyme and some of its properties

    J Bacteriol. 1978 Apr;134(1):353-5. PubMed PMID: 25885; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC222254.
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